Alice C. Linsley
The Horites were a caste of rulers who controlled the trade routes from the Sahara to India. Originally, they controlled the major waters systems at a time when the Sahara, Arabia and Mesopotamia were wetter. Commerce moved along the rivers which were interconnected in the late Holocene.
The Horites served as river shrine and temple attendants. They interceded for others and offered sacrifice. Job offered sacrifice daily for the sins of his own family. At the end of the book, God tells Job to pray for his kinsmen Eliphaz, Zophar and Bildad. This is reminiscent of Abraham praying for Abimelech and his whole household (Gen. 20:17,18). Purity was an essential trait of the Horite priest.
The word "Horite" takes many forms: Khar, Hur, Horonaim, Horoni, Horowitz, Horim, and Hori. Hori was the son of Lotan son of Seir whose descendants were the "lords of the Horites in the land of Seir" according to Genesis 36:20-29 and 1 Chronicles 1:38-42. Lot, Lotan, and Nimlot are Egyptian titles. Nimlot C was the High Priest of Amun at Thebes during the latter part of the reign of his father Osorkon II.
The Horite kings of Edom are listed in Genesis 36. Here is a diagram of the lines descending from Seir the Horite. Note that there are two men named Esau.
Abraham was a Horite Habiru/Hebrew whose territory extended between Hebron and Beersheba, entirely in the land of Edom. The Horites of Edom were his kinsmen.
The Horites were devotees of HR (Hor, Hur or Horus) whose mother Hathor conceived by the overshadowing of the sun, the Creator's emblem. Horus is the archetype by which Abraham's descendants would recognize Jesus as the promised Seed of the Woman (Gen. 3:15). Jesus' authentication was His rising from the dead on the third day, in accordance with Horite expectation. As St. Augustine noted, the Egyptians took great care in the burial of their dead and never practiced cremation, as in the religions that seek to escape physical existence. Abraham's ancestors believed in the resurrection of the body and awaited a deified king who would rise from the grave and deliver his people from death.
Hathor's animal totem was a cow. She is shown at the Dendura Temple holding her newborn son in a manger or stable. The stable was constructed by the Horite priest Har-si-Atef. Atef was the crown worn by deified rulers. The Arabic word atef or atif means "kind." The ruler who wore the atef crown was to embody kindness and he was to unite the peoples.
Horite belief in a deified son who would embody kindness and unite the peoples found fulfillment in Jesus Christ, a descendant of the Horite ruler-priests, the divine son of the Virgin Mary, daughter of the priest Joachim of the line of Nathan. Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of the promise made to Abraham's Horite ancestors in Eden (Gen. 3:15). This is why Frank Moore Cross cannot avoid the conclusion that the God of Israel is the God of the Horites.
Consider how Horus, the mythical archetype of Christ, describes himself in the Coffin texts (passage 148): I am Horus, the great Falcon upon the ramparts of the house of him of the hidden name. My flight has reached the horizon. I have passed by the gods of Nut. I have gone further than the gods of old. Even the most ancient bird could not equal my very first flight. I have removed my place beyond the powers of Set, the foe of my father Osiris. No other god could do what I have done. I have brought the ways of eternity to the twilight of the morning. I am unique in my flight. My wrath will be turned against the enemy of my father Osiris and I will put him beneath my feet in my name of 'Red Cloak'. (Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt by R.T. Rundle Clark, p. 216)
Here we find the words of Psalm 110:1, a messianic reference: The Lord says to my Lord: "Sit at My right hand until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet."
Horus, whose totem was the falcon or hawk, was known by many titles. He was called the "Son of God," "Horus of the Two Crowns," "Horus of the Two Horizons," and he was associated with the three superior planets Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Mars was named "Horus of the Horizon" or "Horus the Red." Jupiter was called "Horus Who Illuminates the Two Lands." Saturn was named "Horus, Bull of the Sky." The three superior planets were always depicted with the falcon-head of Horus (Krupp 1979).
Horus of Nekhen, an ancient Horite shrine city on the Nile
In his work Isis and Osiris Plutarch remarked that Horite priests burned incense three times a day: frankincense at dawn, myrrh at mid-day, and kyphi at dusk. These were the three most significant points in the sun's daily journey and the mid-day (high noon) was considered the sacred center, a time when there are no shadows (James 1:17). The sun was the emblem of Re, the Creator. His son was sometimes shown flying as a falcon above the sun, as in this stone image from Anghor Wat in Cambodia. Wat means shrine, town and temple. Anghor is "ankh-Hor" in Egyptian and means Life to Horus!
|Hor soaring as a falcon above the Sun, the emblem of Re the Father in His solar boat|
Horite religious ideas spread across the ancient Afro-Asiatic Dominion, but originated in the Upper Nile region. Abraham's ancestors came from the Nile region which was later called Kush. His father Terah is associated with the Nubian Ainu who had a red skin tone. We first meet Abraham in the Ur-Haran region because he is a descendant of Nimrod who built a vast kingdom in Mesopotamia. Nimrod was a son of Kush. Likely he is Sargon the Great. Sar-gon means King of Kings or Most High King.
Horite does not designate a race or ethnicity. It designates a caste of rulers and priests. Jews are one group that descended from the Horites. That is why Jews call their ancestors horim. Some Jews and some Arabs have a common Horite ancestry.
The ancient world of the Afro-Asiatics was structured along caste lines. Typical of castes, the Horite lines exclusively intermarried (endogamy). The geneologies of the Bible reveal that intermarriage of the ruler-priests lines continued to the time of Jesus. Jesus is the culmination of the Horim's expectation of the fulfillment of the Edenic Promise. (Gen. 3:15)
It is from the Horite priesthood that the priesthood of Israel developed. Moses' two brothers, Korah and Aaron, were Horite priests before Judaism emerged as a distinct world religion, even before Israel can be identified as a nation. Horite priests served in the temple in Jerusalem on a rotating schedule. I Chronicles 4:4 lists Hur (Hor) as the "father of Bethlehem". The author of Chronicles knew that Bethlehem was originally a Horite settlement in the heart of Horite territory.
The word Horite is related to the Egyptian 'khar', a measurement of fuel used in burnt offerings and to a measurement of volume - gr - used across the ancient Afro-Asiatic Dominion. Khar is likely also related to the Egyptian word for priest harwa and to the word korah. One of Moses' older brothers was Korah and he was a Horite priest. Korah means "shaved head" and according to Numbers 16:17-18, Korah carried the censor to offer incense before God. This suggests that kor and tor are cognates.
Kor/Korah andTor/Torah both appear be related to blood sacrifice and the Horite priesthood. The Hebrew root thr = to be pure, corresponds to the Hausa/Hahm toro = clean, and to the Tamil tiru = holy. All are related to the proto-Dravidian tor = blood. The Horite priest was to be purified before entering the temple. The purification ritual involved shaving their heads and bodies.
Josephus calls the descendants of Abraham by Keturah "Horites" and quoting another ancient historian, speaks of them as "conquerors of Egypt and founders of the Assyrian Empire." Doubtless this is a reference to Nimrod (Sargon the Great) who established for himself a vast empire in Sumeria. Josephus failed to note, however, that the Horites already existed before Abraham married Keturah. They are Abraham's Kushite ancestors who spread the Proto-Gospel across the ancient Afro-Asiatic Dominion. The origins of Messianic expectation can be traced to Abraham's Horite ancestors.
Horite men married only Horite women and according to a pattern which was tied to ancient tradition. It is not a coincidence that Joseph married Asenath, the daughter of "the priest of On" (Gen. 41:45). The exclusive intermarriage between Horite lines requires that we take these words quite literally: "For me you shall be a kingdom of priests, a holy nation." (Ex. 19:6)
Special care was taken in the selection of the wives of the firstborn sons, and each ruler-priest had four firstborn sons. The firstborn son of the half-sister wife ascended to the throne of his biological father. The firstborn son of the patrilineal cousin or niece ascended to the throne of this maternal grandfather (as did Nimrod, who ascended to the throne of Nimrod the Elder). Nimrod the Younger was named by his mother after her father. This was done only by the cousin/niece brides, so while Nimrod's father is not known, we know that his mother was the daughter of the Kushite ruler Nimrod the Elder who conquer Nippur in 2340.
The firstborn sons by the ruler's two concubines, and sons by wives who didn't ascend to established thrones, were given gifts and sent away to conquer territories of their own. Sent-away sons include Cain, Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Joseph and Moses. By this means the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Horites drove the Kushite expansion out of Africa.