Saturday, September 1, 2012

Messianic Jews and the Antecedents of Judaism

Alice C. Linsley

In this recent online conversation with Messianic Jew Derek Leman, I was asked:


Why are you so persuaded by the theory that a priest class of devotees to Horus are the predecessors of Israel’s religion? You do know this belief of yours about history is not shared by many other people and has nothing to do with Judaism or Christianity, right?

You seem like a great thinker and an articulate person. I’d enjoy dialoguing with you by email. 

My response was:

Horus (HR), was called “son of God” and was born of the virgin queen who was overshadowed by the Sun (the Creator’s emblem). Her totem was a cow and images of her at the oldest Horite temples and shrines in Sudan and along the Nile show her holding her son in a manger. Since the king lists of Genesis reveal a Horite marriage and ascendancy pattern, it is logical to assume that the Horite belief is the origin of Messianic expectation. In other words, Christianity emerges in an organic way from the faith of Abraham and his Horite ruler-priest caste. In this sense, it is a received tradition of very great antiquity, not a copy-cat religion as many agnostics and atheists claim. 

I have written an extensive explanation in my paper "Genesis in Anthropological Perspective."

At this point Joe Ewell entered the conversation with this:

Linsey, actually Horus was Not called the “son of God” but the son of the “Moon [later SUN] God (i.e., “HOsieRUS”, “Osirus”). His so-called “virgin” mother (i.e.,”Isis”), the sister of Osirus, employed a reed inorder to replace the only part of Osirus’ 15 body parts not to have been recaptured, to help her bare Osirus’ son-Horus! Not exactly a “virgin” birth! One of the primary distinctions that you failed to mention here is that Isis and Osirus were full sister and brother, a relationship completely prohibited by most ancient cultures, especially the semitic cultures! Aleichem Shalom!

To which I responded:

You are mistaken about Horus, probably because of the many misleading new-age interpretations that abound. Some Egyptologists with agendas have also obfuscated the data.

Horus was known by various names, as was his father Ra and his mother. She was first called Hathor, Meri, and later Isis. You will have to sort through the information to get a clearer picture.

The Horite ruler-priests were regarded as deified “sons” of God. They are often called “gods” (elohiym) as in Exodus 22:28: “Thou shalt not revile the gods (elohiym), nor curse the ruler of thy people.” They served in the temple on a rotating schedule and purified themselves before the time of service. It is from the Horite priesthood that the priesthood of Israel developed. Moses’ brothers Korah and Aaron were Horite priests before the nation of Israel existed. This is confirmed by the distinctive Horite marriage and ascendancy pattern of Moses’ father.

The Horites worshiped the Creator who emblem was the Sun when other peoples were worshiping idols of false gods. They anticipated the coming of the Seed of God (Gen. 3:15) and believed that He would be born of their royal-priest bloodlines. That is why the lines of priests intermarrried exclusively and why unchaste daughters of priests were burned alive (Lev. 21:9). Sexual impurity was not tolerated.

Hor’s mother was called Hathor-Meri (later Isis) and her animal totem was a cow. She is shown at the Dendura Temple holding her newborn son in a manger or stable. The stable was constructed by the Horite priest Har-si-Atef. Atef was the crown worn by deified rulers. The Arabic word atef or atif means “kind.” The ruler who wore the atef crown was to embody kindness and he was to unite the peoples.

Horite belief in a deified son who would embody kindness and unite the peoples found fulfillment in Jesus Christ, a descendant of the Horite ruler-priests, the divine son of the Virgin Mary, daughter of the shepherd-priest Joachim of the line of Nathan. Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of the promise made to Abraham’s Horite ancestors in Eden (Gen. 3:15). This is why Frank Moore Cross cannot avoid the conclusion that the God of Israel is the God of the Horites.

Consider how Horus, the archetype of Christ, describes himself in the Coffin texts (passage 148):

“I am Horus, the great Falcon upon the ramparts of the house of him of the hidden name. My flight has reached the horizon. I have passed by the gods of Nut. I have gone further than the gods of old. Even the most ancient bird could not equal my very first flight. I have removed my place beyond the powers of Set, the foe of my father Osiris. No other god could do what I have done. I have brought the ways of eternity to the twilight of the morning. I am unique in my flight. My wrath will be turned against the enemy of my father Osiris and I will put him beneath my feet in my name of ‘Red Cloak’.” (Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt by R.T. Rundle Clark, p. 216)

Here we find the words of Psalm 110:1, a messianic reference: The Lord says to my Lord: “Sit at My right hand until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet.”

Rabbi Derek never contacted me for a private conversation. Instead he blasted back with this:


I do not share your belief at all that the dying/rising mythical gods are the origin of Abrahamic or messianic faith. I welcome your comments here at Messianic Jewish Musings, but I would ask you not to comment any more based on your Horite theory of the origins of biblical faith. I simply don’t find it helpful. No one here shares your view and you should realize that. I welcome your opinions about the text in other ways, just not your private theory which has nothing to do with Messianic Judaism, Judaism, or Christianity. I hope you understand.

I would like to point my readers to this recent post on James McGrath’s blog, to see how some scholars are refuting the common assertion that dying/rising deities of the ancient world are the true origin of the “Jesus myth.” I am sure Alice can give us pages and pages of refutation of what this post says about Horus, but I am not interested in publicizing a Horus or not-Horus debate here. I simply offer this as some perspective on what Alice is talking about and I agree with what this link has to say about the matter:

Rabbi Derek asked me about my research and I gave him a concise answer. After this last comment, I decided to honor the request of the blog owner and make no further reply, though I discovered that there was interest in what I had written in subsequent comments which Rabbi Derek deleted.

I offered this apology:

Sorry. I didn’t intend to take the conversation off topic. Best wishes to you! And many blessing in Jesus Christ the Son of God who came into the world to save repentant sinners like me.

At this later post by Rabbi Derek, I asked:

Yes, but what of Israel’s antecedents? Is this not important to Israel’s identity? From an anthropological perspective, this matters.

Derek responded:


It would be hard to demonstrate any historical theory of the ethnic precursors of Israel. You either have to make an argument from the biblical story of the patriarchs (which cannot be verified historically) or use some sort of historical evidence. There is none. If we use the biblical story there is a huge ambiguity about where Abraham is from (Syria or Babylon?).

To which I replied:

There is Biblical, historical, linguistic, genetic, archaeological and anthropological evidence to indicate that Abraham’s ancestors were Nilo-Saharans. Even some references in the Babylonian Talmud support this.

Today it isn’t enough to say that the Bible is true. People want to see that it is verified by the evidence in these sciences.

The conversation degenerated from there with Rabbi Derek's suggestion that my research has no value because it lacks peer-review. This is false, but an argument that is often used to discredit people's reesearch.

The Evidence of Abraham's Horite Antecedants

Rabbi Derek does what Dr. Shaye Cohen of Harvard does. He begins Israel's history with the calling of Abraham and ignores all the data about Abraham's ancestors before Genesis 12. Dr. Cohen's portrayal of Abraham as the first Jew perpetuates a common myth and one that Dr. Cohen admits. When asked in this NOVA interview if Abraham was the first Jew, Dr. Cohen responded, "The biblical narrative gets going with Abraham in Genesis chapter 12. Abraham in turn Isaac, in turn Jacob, in turn Joseph and the twelve tribes, this brings us directly to the people of Israel and the covenant at Sinai. So Abraham is thought of as the first Jew, the archetype."

The fact that Abraham's father Terah was an Ainu priest is ignored, despite the bulk of biblical and extra-biblical evidence.

Even the Talmudic reference that indicates that Abraham's mother was associated with the temple at Karnak is ignored.  Yet rabbis insist that Jewish ethnicity is traced through the mother.

The version of Israel's antecedents told by Derek Leman and Shaye Cohen has nothing to do with history or with what the Bible reveals about Abraham's Nilotic ancestors. Genesis 12 is an arbitrary place to begin in order to claim Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as the founders of Judaism. This approach also ignores the evidence of the various sciences.

DNA Studies

Dr. Harry Ostrer, director of the human genetics program at the New York University School of Medicine, led one of the studies that compared the genetic makeup of Jewish populations from around the world with African populations. Ostrer found that modern Jewish populations have African ancestry. Read more about this study here.

David Reich, associate professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School, and his colleagues decided to explore further and found that modern Jews can attribute about 3 to 5 percent of their ancestry to sub-Saharan Africans.

This aligns with the geneological data of Genesis that indicates that Abraham's Horite caste had its origin in Africa. This is verified by the discovery of the oldest (4000 B.C.) Horite shrine at Nekhen in Sudan. At Nekhen votive instruments were ten times larger than the mace heads and bowls found elsewhere, suggesting that this was a very prestigious shrine. Horite priests placed invocations to Horus at the summit of the fortress as the sun rose. This is the likely origin of the sun blessings in Judaism - the Birka Hachama, or Sun Blessing ritual, performed every 28 years.

The Horites were a caste of ruler-priests who were devotees of Hor (Horus in Greek) who was called "son" of God. Jesus makes reference to the Horus myth when speaking about his death and resurrection. The death of Horus was observed in a five-day festival. The first three days were marked by solemnity (as Plutarch noted in Isis and Osiris, 69). The last two days were a time of feasting and rejoicing. Horus is said to have died on the 17th of Athyr. His death was commemorated by the planting of grains of wheat. On the third day, the 19th of Athyr, there was a celebration of Horus’ rising to life.

It is no coincidence that Jesus alludes to the ancient Horite myth when describing his passion and resurrection in John 12:24. He is a direct descendant of the Horite ruler-priests lines which exclusively intermarried and he was born in Bethlehem of Judah, in the ruler-priest line of Matthew (Mattai/Mattan). This was the line of Joseph of Hari-mathea, a voting member of the Sanhedrin. He and Nicodemus, another member of the Sanhedrin, buried Jesus’ body.

Linguistic Studies

Dr. Mudope Oduyoye has demonstrated common roots in Yoruba, Ancient Egyptian, Hebrew, Arabic and Hausa. European and Anglo linguists already acknowledged a relationship between Hebrew, Akkadian, Aramaic, Ugaritic, but it took this Nigerian philologist to demonstrate a clear connection to African languages like Tiv, Efik, Yoruba, Ibibio, Igbo, Fon, and Twi.

Oduyoye pointed out that Igbo dibia (medicine man) is cognate with the Arabic tibia (doctor) and that the Yoruba ajo is cognate with the Hebrew haj and the Arabic hajj. He notes also that the word ha-rison-iym (ancestors) in Psalm 79.8 is related to the Ijebu lisa (first in rank), to the igbo olise (God as in Olisemeka), to the Arabic ras, the Aramiac resh, the Akkadian rishu and the Yoruba orisha.

Oduyoye noted that the Arabic word harem and the Hebrew heremboth convey the idea of something set apart as sacred. Oduyoye explains that the /h/ is missing in Yoruba because “Yoruba nouns generally do not begin with an /h/ or any h-type sound.” This is more characteristic of the Afro-Arabian languages.

Oduyoye notes that confused in Hebrew is balal, but the Genesis writers use babel (b-b-l). Oduyoye explains that the writer of Genesis is basing etymology on a single leg of sound similarity without any consideration for the other leg or radical. Hebrew balal means mingle, mix, confuse, confound and is cognate with Chichewa balala-balala which means to scatter or disperse.

Consider these linguistic connections:

Father: abba (Hebrew), aabo or aabe (Somali), abbaa (Oromo, primary trade language of Ethiopia), apu (Mundari), and appa (Dravidian). There is a close linguistic and religious connection between the Kushites and the Dravidians. The Africanist Geoffrey Parrinder has noted that at least twenty-five tribes in East Africa worship Murungu as the Supreme God, and like the Dravidian god Murugan, the African Murungu lives on sacred mountains.

The extent of the ancient Afro-Asiatic Dominion is suggested by the dispersion of such words as father, man/he - ishah (Hebrew), Isa (Somali and Oromo), and gold - za-hab (Hebrew), dha-hab (Arabic), nub (Ancient Egyptian) and dahh-ubu (Akkadian).

The Horites have been identified with references to Khar, a unit of measurement used in trade in the Egyptian inscriptions (See James Orr, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, page 1421.) The Horite rulers controlled the water systems upon which cargo was carried in the ancient world. The word khar is related to gur. In Akkadian gurguri means metalworkers or copper smiths. In Oromo gurguru means to sell (gurgurtaa = sale, gurguraa = seller). In Somali gur- means to collect something and gurgure means one who Collects and Keeps Collecting. The Gurgure clan of the Dir refers to traders who collect wares and resale them. Among the Dir guri means stick, rod or firearm.

The Persian and Urdu word Saudagar means trader. This contains the gr root in connection with Arabia. Horite traders dispersed across the ancient world. The association of the roots gr (traders) and hr (Horites) is evident in India in place names such as Gurgaon Haryana.

A linguistic connection to the Horites is retained in the name Horowitz (also spelled Hurwitz or Gurvich), a surname found among Jews of Sephardic ancestry.

The Gir-gam tells the story of Abraham's Proto-Saharan ancestors Cain, Seth and Noah. All were trader-rulers who controlled the water ways of West Central Africa.

Likely gr is also the root of the Japanese (Ainu) word guruma, meaning wheel. The Ainu originated in the Nile. The Ainu script of Japan resembles the Hebrew script because there were Ainu among Abraham's Proto-Saharan ancestors who moved out of Africa. Their regional chiefs were called Obito in Japan, Oba among the Horites of Edom, and Obodas at Petra.

Kinship Analysis

I have demonstrated in my 30+ years of research on the marriage and ascendancy pattern of Abraham's Horite caste that the ruler-priest lines intermarried exclusively beginning at least as early as Cain and Seth. This fact, coupled with the distinctive cousin bride's naming prerogative, makes it possible to trace the Horite lineage of Jesus Christ from Genesis 4 and 5 to Mary and Joseph.

Archaeological Studies

Scripts:  Approximately 11,000 Thamudic inscriptions have been found scattered from Syria to Yemen. These represent the proto-scripts of the Biblical Afro-Asiatics. Similar inscriptions have been identified along the Nile in Sudan. These are accompanied by petroglyphs showing humans, oxen, cattle, circles and spirals. Abraham's Proto-Saharan ancestors venerated cattle. 

Pyramids: The discovery of a pyramid and a sphinx in Niger (Zinder) lends support to my theory of an African dominion from the time of Noah (B.C. 2490-2415). Cain, Seth and their wives were of the ruling houses of this ancient Proto-Saharan and Nilotic civilization, as were Lamech the Elder and his son-in-law Methuselah

Abraham's ancestors considered Horus the "Seed" of Ra because his mother Hathor was said to conceive when she was overshadowed by the Sun (Ra's solar emblem). In the oldest known Messianic tradition the Son of God/Ra is born as a calf to Hathor who is portrayed as a sacred cow, and the birth took place in a stable or manger. The oldest known site of Horus worship is the shrine city of Nekhen in Sudan. It dates to the time of the pyramid discovered in Zinder.

The Saharan origins of the rulers of Egypt has been well documented by the Canadian archeologist Mary McDonald.

The construction of pyramids was widespread among Abraham's dispersed ruler-priest ancestors. The number 72 represents the number of years it takes for the constellations to move one degree due to precession. The Great Pyramid and Angkor Wat are nearly 72° apart, along the circle's circumference (diagram below). It has been noted also that Angkor Wat is located 72° of longitude east of the Pyramids of Giza. The name Angkor correlates with the ancient Egyptian Anhk-Hor, meaning "Long live Horus."

Point A represents the Angkor Wat complex of 72 shrines and G represents the Great Pyramid of Egypt.
Point I represents Har-Appa in the Indus valley. Har-Appa means "Horus is Father."
Point M is the pyramid at Machupicchu with 72 steps. Point E is Easter Island.
Credit: Jim Alison

Apparently the Horites believed that each year of the precession is represented by a deified ruler and the Heavenly Council is comprised of these 72 rulers. These are called "Houris" in the Quran.

Pottery: The oldest vessels were ostrich eggs and the clay vessels that came after these were egg shaped. The pottery vessels crafted in Ancient Japan during the Jōmon period are considered to be the oldest pottery in Japan, as early as 12,000 B.C. They are egg-shaped with a rope pattern also found on Nilotic pottery.

Ovoid (egg shape) Jōmon vessel 

Ostrich eggs, which are as hard as earthenware when dry, were used in prehistoric times throughout the Nile valley as perfume containers, bowls for oblutions, and as canteens. Ostrich feathers were worn in the hair of warriors and rulers of ancient Egypt, and the Egyptian goddess Ma'at is shown with an ostrich feather in her hair. Using this feather, she weighed the hearts of the dead to determine who would enter eternal life and who would experience the second death (Rev. 2:11, 20:14). In ancient Kush painted ostrich eggs were placed in the graves of children, symbolizing the hope of life after death.

Painted ostrich eggs have been found in tombs at Nekhen and in many graves of children in ancient Nubia. The oldest find of decorated ostrich eggshells includes 270 engraved shell fragments, excavated in the area of Diepkloof Rock Shelter in South Africa. These are between 65,000 and 55,000 years old.

Decorated ostrich-egg vessels and ostrich shell beads have been found at numerous Natufian sites, including burial grounds.  The Natufians [1] populated an area that includes Palestine, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon between 15,000 and 9,000 years ago. All the evidence indicates that they were East Africans, what the Bible calls "Kushite." They practiced the removal of teeth as an initiation rite, a trait of many Nilotic tribes.    Among the Luo tribe, for example, initiation involves the removal of six front teeth; three each from the upper and lower jaws. The Luo are a Nilotic tribe.

Consider what these experts have to say:

Graeme Barker: "the similarities in the respective archaeological records of the Natufian culture of the Levant and of contemporary foragers in coastal North Africa across the late Pleistocene and early Holocene boundary". (Barker G, Transitions to farming and pastoralism in North Africa, in Bellwood P, Renfrew C 2002, Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis, pp 151–161.)

Ofer Bar-Yosef cites the microburin technique and “microlithic forms such as arched backed bladelets and La Mouillah points" as well as the parthenocarpic figs found in Natufian territory originated in the Sudan. (Bar-Yosef O., Pleistocene connections between Africa and SouthWest Asia: an archaeological perspective. The African Archaeological Review; Chapter 5, pg 29-38; Kislev ME, Hartmann A, Bar-Yosef O, Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley. Nature 312:1372–1374.)

Christopher Ehret noted that the intensive use of plants among the Natufians was first found in Africa, as a precursor to the development of farming in the Fertile Crescent. (Ehret, The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2002)

The Indian archaeologist, B. B. Lal, contends that the Dravidians came from southern Egypt and Sudan (Nubia). Lal writes: "At Timos [Timnah in Southwestern Arabah] the Indian team dug up several megalithic sites of ancient Nubians which bear an uncanny resemblance to the cemeteries of early Dravidians which are found all over Western India from Kathiawar to Cape Comorin. The intriguing similarity extends from the subterranean structure found near them. Even the earthenware ring-stands used by the Dravidians and Nubians to hold pots were identical."


Anonymous said...


You are awesome and I enjoy your truths. If Judeo-Christian faith is an offshoot of Ainu and Horus worship then should not anthropologists, Historians and Linguists concentrate efforts in places in Africa and Asia where natives still practice and observe rites of worship Horus and Isis so to obtain hands-on documentary and record of how it was done in Abrahamaic and Noahdic times?

I came across a video not too long ago, it was shared with me by a friend, she is Nigerian. She received it in her email from a blogsite and I think the owner of the blogsite or someone in there who is familiar with the traditions said this video show people in a ritual to Isis and Horus. She says Isise in the title is Isis. What do you know about the people and if this is true?


Alice Linsley said...

As a Biblical Anthropologist I find that the Bible supplies a great deal of significant anthropological data about the antecedents of Judaism. the connections to Africa are quite substantial. However, religious practices do change. I can't speak to whether or not Horus and Isis devotees today accurate reflect the practices of Abraham's Horite ancestors.

Ibibio Phillips-Judah said...

There are numerous words in the Ibibio language that have the same direct or close meaning in Hebrew. For instance, eyin, means eye in Ibibio. Essene means foreign. Essene owo means foreigner or stranger. owo means person. Ima means love. Mma mesans mother, etc.

Alice Linsley said...

These Ibibio words and their Hebrew correlations are derived from more primitive roots among the Proto-Saharans whose range extended from the Atlantic coast of modern Nigeria to the Nile Valley during the African Wet Period.