Monday, July 11, 2011

The Marriage and Ascendancy Pattern of Abraham's People

Alice C. Linsley


My sister recently took a course in Anthropology which exposed her to the discipline of kinship analysis. On the final exam 25% of the questions dealt with kinship. This question in particular posed a real challenge: “The biblical pattern of tracing genealogy is patrilineal.” The answer that the professor wanted was “True.” Since my sister has followed my Genesis research for many years she knew that this statement is only partly true.

Analysis of the structure of the Genesis "begats" reveals that lineage was traced through both the ruling father (patriarch) and the mother, if she is the cousin or niece bride. All the rulers of Genesis had two wives. One was a half-sister (as was Sarah to Abraham) and the other was a patrilineal cousin or niece (as was Keturah to Abraham).  The first wife was the sister bride, married at a fairly young age. She was the wife of the man's youth. The second wife was taken close to the time of the man's ascent to the throne.

The firstborn son of the sister wife ascended to the throne of his biological father. So Isaac ruled over Abraham's territory. The firstborn son of the cousin/niece wife ascended to the throne of his maternal grandfather, after whom he was named. So Joktan ascended to the throne of his maternal grandfather. Joktan is the progenitor of the Joktanite clans of Arabia.

Lamech the Younger (Gen. 5:26), son of Methuselah by his cousin wife, ascended to the throne of Lamech the Elder (Gen. 4:20-22).


The maternal line of the cousin/niece wife is traced through the cousin/niece bride’s naming prerogative. For example: Irad’s daughter married her patrilineal cousin and named their first born son Jarad after her father. (Irad and Jarad are linguistically equivalent names.) Irad is mentioned in Genesis 4:18 and Jarad is mentioned in Genesis 5:15.

The pattern continues to the time of Jesus Christ because the Horite ruling caste practiced endogamy, that is, they intermarried exclusively. Here we see the pattern in Moses' family.


Moses' father had two wives. Ishar was his cousin/niece wife.  She named their firstborn son Korah after her father. Korah the Younger ascended to the throne of his maternal grandfather.  This means that Jochebed was Amram's half-sister wife. All of the people in this diagram are descendants of or kin to Seir the Horite (Gen. 36). 



Note that there are two named Esau in the diagram above. This suggests that Esau the Elder's daughter married Isaac and named their firstborn son after her father, according to the cousin-bride's naming prerogative. This would mean that Esau was not a twin to Jacob, but his half-brother. As such they would not have been in competition to rule over Isaac's territory.  As Isaac's firstborn son by his cousin wife, Esau would rule over the territory of his maternal grandfather in the hill country of Seir/Edom (which is what he did). Jacob would have been sent away from Esau to rule in another place, which is what happened.


The Cousin/Niece Naming Prerogative

The cousin/niece bride's naming prerogative pertained to noble wives, not to concubines. Each ruler had two concubines.  These were handmaids to his wives.  So Jacob had two wives: Rachel and Leah and two concubines: Bilhah and Zilpah. Bilhah was Rachel's maid and Zilpah was Leah's maid.  Likewise, Abraham had two concubines: Hagar (Sarah's maid) and Masek (Keturah's maid). 

Only the firstborn sons ascended to rule over the maternal and paternal thrones.  This is a Kushite marriage pattern and is found among the Kushite pharaohs.  For example, the Kushite ruler Amenhotep III was the father of Akhenaten the Younger who was named by Amenhotep's cousin wife after her father. This means that Akhenaten the Younger ascended to the throne of his maternal grandfather, after whom he was named. Egypt under the Kushites always had two thrones and Horus who was called the "son of God" was said to be the one who united the peoples.

The firstborn son of the half-sister wife ascended to the throne of his biological father. So Isaac was Abraham's heir.  The firstborn son of the cousin/niece wife ascended to the throne of his maternal grandfather. So Joktan, Abraham's son by Keturah, ascended to the throne of Joktan the Elder, after whom he was named.  Other sons were given gifts and sent away to establish territories of their own. Many of the Bible's greatest figures were sent-away sons. This marriage and ascendency pattern drove Kushite expansion and has been confirmed by DNA studies.


The Anthropolgical Evidence

The “begets” of Genesis 4 and 5 present a very old kinship pattern which I have diagrammed and analyzed using E.L. Schusky’s Manual for Kinship Analysis, one of the most important books of the 20th century because it presents a method for understanding ancient kinship patterns such as described in the Bible. Kinship patterns are like cultural signatures. Once a pattern is identified, it can be used to trace the original homeland of a people or peoples. This means that analysis of the kinship pattern presented in Genesis 4 and 5 can direct us to the homeland of Abraham’s ancestors. Although Abraham never lived in Africa, his ancestors did. They were ethnically Kushite and the antecedants of the Abrahamic faith are found in ancient Kush.

Analysis of the pattern shows that Cain and Seth married the daughters of a Kushite chief named Enoch. These brides named their first-born sons after their father. So it is that Cain's firstborn son is Enoch and Seth's firstborn son is Enosh. The names are linguistically equivalent and derived from the Kushitic root NK, not from Hebrew. Nok's territory was in west central Africa which was part of the ancient Afro-Asiaric Dominion referred to in Genesis 11:1.


The Afro-Asiatic Dominion as established by Genetic Analysis

Before a man could become chief in his father's place, he had to have 2 wives. The wives maintained separate households on a north-south axis. Their households marked the boundaries of the chief’s territory.
The wives were placed on a north-south axis rather than on an east-west axis because these chiefs, with the exception of Lamech the Elder, did not want to set themselves up as God, whose emblem was the sun which makes a daily journey from east to west. Lamech's wives were Adah (dawn) and t-Zillah (dusk), suggesting that he regarded himself as equal to God.

Where does one find this kinship pattern today? The pattern is found among Nilotic and Kushitic rulers and metal working chiefs in Niger, Sudan, Nigeria, Horn of Africa and Arabia. Emmanuel Kenshu Vubo, of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology of the University of Buea, Cameroon, has done a good deal of research on this among the peoples of Cameroon.


Related reading:  The Afro-Asiatic Dominion; Sent-Away Sons; Kushite Brides; The Marriage Structure of Abraham's Horite People

7 comments:

Dean Rick Lobs said...

Fascinating! Thanks for your ongoing publishing. Rick

Shawna R. B. Atteberry said...

Wow. This was a fascinating read. I had no idea about all of the kinship patterns in Genesis.

Alice C. Linsley said...

Shawna, There is only one kinship and ascendency pattern, though complex, for Abraham's Horite ruler-priest caste. The Bible tells us very little about the kinship patterns of other non-Afro-Asiatic peoples mentioned in the Bible, such as the Philistines.

Steve Allen said...

I can definitely see the pattern you are talking about; however, I think that your assertion that Jacob and Esau were half-brothers, and not twins, bears the burden of proof, considering the story of their birth in Gen. 25:22-26 asserts not once, not twice, but thrice (v. 22, 23, and 24 each explicitly state this) that the two were in the same womb. Additionally, the prophet agrees (Hos. 12:3). I am curious to hear how you overcome this difficulty?

Alice Linsley said...

Steve,

I did not intend to assert that Jacob and Esau were half-brothers, simply to suggest the possibility and to explore it.

The oracle concerning "two nations" in Rebekah's womb deserves more attention. Esau was red and hairy. This indicates that with him the Ainu DNA was dominant. What did Jacob look like? It is interesting that the author of Genesis does not provide this information. If they were twins, it is likely that Jacob was dark-skinned. With Ainu twins it happened sometimes that one had a red skin tone and the other a darker, even black, skin tone.
See this:

http://biblicalanthropology.blogspot.com/2012/06/does-genesis-10-describe-ainu.html

Lots to explore here. Thanks for the comment!

Unknown said...

Hi Alice, can I ask how many wives Isaac had ? I have been reading ur blog and according to ur blog, u mentioned that he married Judith daughter of Yisbak and of course Rebekah daughter of bethuel. He also married the daughter of Esau the elder ?

Alice Linsley said...

I know nothing about Judith as Isaac's wife. That is not in the book of Genesis, but comes from the rabbis (Talmud).

Following the custom of his Horim (Horite ancestors), Isaac had two wives. Cousin wives were second wives. First wives were half-sisters. Since Rebecca was his cousin bride we can safely assume that she was also Isaac's second wife. His first wife would have been living in the region of Beersheba, which is where he is living when Rebecca shows up.