Saturday, October 5, 2019

Leaving Haran

Alice C. Linsley

Abraham's father Terah maintained two wives in separate households. One resided in Ur of Chaldea (modern Iraq) and the other resided in Haran (modern Turkey). The rulers of Abraham's people marked their northern and southern boundaries by the placement of their wives. Abraham did this also. Sarah resided in Hebron and Keturah resided in Beersheba to the south. (Both Hebron and Beersheba were in the territory that the Greeks called Idumea, which is Edom, the land of red people.)

The Horite Hebrew rulers did not place their wives on an east-west axis because that would be to claim equality with God. The solar arc indicated God's daily route from the rising of the sun to the setting of the sun. There is a subtle criticism of Lamech the Elder (Gen. 4) whose two wives lived in settlements on a east-west axis. As the Hebrew scholar Theodor Gaster noted, their names Adah and Zillah indicate dawn and dust. This rounds out the picture of Lamech's arrogance, for besides boasting of killing a man, he set himself as an equal to God.

Evidently, Terah was a powerful ruler. His territory was the fertile land between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. His son Nahor ruled after Terah died in Haran (Gen. 11:32). Nahor was Abraham's older brother.

In Akkadian, "na" is a modal prefix indicating service to, affirmation, or affiliation.The name Na-Hor would then indicate a servant of Horus; further evidence that Terah and his sons were Horite Hebrew rulers.

Nahor's sons were Uz, Buz, Kemuel, Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph and Bethuel. Job was of the clan of Uz. Nahor also had children by a concubine named Reumah. Their names were Tebah, Gaham, Tahash, and Maacah (Gen. 22:20-24). The name "Tahash" refers to tanners and leather workers. A stronghold called Aram-Maacah is mentioned as an ally to the late Bronze Age strongholds of Aram Naharaim and Zobah in 1 Chronicles 19:6.

According to the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Horite Hebrew, Abraham would have received gifts from his father before Terah died. These were provisions for Abraham's departure as a "sent-away" son. Sent-away sons were to seek territories of their own away from their father's proper heir. The sending forth of Abraham constitutes a divine call and appointment. It means that a kingdom will be gained, not according to worldly means, but as God directs. Sent-away sons receive divine protection, guidance, territory, authority, and heirs. This pattern is found with Cain, Abraham, Moses, Yacob, Yoseph, Samuel and David.

The right of rule was bestowed on the first born son of the principal wife. The principal wife was the bride of the man's youth and a half-sister, as was Sarah to Abraham. Inheritance grants were given to the sons of concubines. Abraham gave grants to the sons of his concubines Hagar and Masek and sent the sons away from the territory of his proper heir, Isaac (Gen. 25:6). 

Many heroes of the Bible are men who left their homes and relied on God for provision of their own territories. This practice of sending away sons drove the expansion of the Horite Hebrew into new territories. It explains why the Horite Hebrew are found dispersed among the peoples of Y-DNA Haplogroup R (shown on map above).

Wednesday, October 2, 2019

The God of Genesis

Priest of the Sethite High Places of the Anu (c. 2200 BC)

Alice C. Linsley

Recently, I was asked how the God of Genesis connects to Christian theology, specifically to the catholic faith. By "catholic" I mean what the Church has believed at all times and in all places, and what is enshrined in the Creeds, protected by the ecumenical councils, and attested by Holy Scripture.

This is a thoughtful question that encourages us to focus on the theological substance of Genesis. Who is God in the first book of the Bible?

God is the High God. He reigns supreme over all other deities, rulers, dominions, and powers. This is expressed in the pervasive solar symbolism of Abraham and his Horite Hebrew people. As the sun is the great light that gives light to the world, so the High God shines above the whole creation.

God is the Creator and eternal. He is from before the beginning of the creation. He creates in an orderly fashion. That order includes binary distinctions, hierarchies, and boundaries, and commands. God separates the waters above from the waters below, and the dry land from the sea. He stretches the heavens from the east to the west. He creates male and female. He creates a garden with boundaries, and within the garden He places the Tree of life and the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil with instructions on how to pursue life.

The God of Genesis is perceived as having male qualities. He was believed to inseminate the earth. This belief was probably due to the discovery of meteoritic iron pellets by archaic peoples. The meteoritic iron found on the earth's surface was worn by chiefs and rulers because it represented power from on high. Iron beads were a symbol of royal and priestly authority and were worn by kings, priests and warriors. This belief continued into the dynastic periods. King Tut's dagger (shown above) had a gold sheath and a tip made of meteoritic iron.

The God of Abraham's Horite Hebrew people was father to a son. God father was called Ra or Ani and God son was called Horus or Enki. Horus was the Master of kings, the wearer of the two crowns, and the one who unites the peoples. He was called "Horus of the Horizons" because he was said to rise in the east as a lamb and set in the west as a mature ram. This is the message Abraham's received on Mount Moriah when the offering of his own son is met with the offering of God's son in the form of a ram.

God's spirit goes forth and generates life. In the Nicene Creed the Holy Spirit is proclaimed "the Lord, the Giver of Life." The Spirit of God animates as it enters like a breath into the first humans. The Spirit moves like a wind over the dark deep and brings order to chaos.

The God of Genesis looks on the heart. He knows what Sarah is thinking and lovingly confronts her (Gen. 18). He does not hold King Abimelech guilty for taking Sarah since Abimelech did so with a clear conscience (Gen. 20:6).

The God of Genesis is merciful. Though Cain deserves death for killing his brother, God instead banishes him and places a mark of protection on him. Likewise, God shows mercy to others who murdered, including Lamech the Elder (Gen. 4), Moses, and David.

God provides what is needed. Eden is well-watered with abundant vegetation. Clothing is provided to cover the couple's nakedness. Noah, his family, and his royal menagerie are saved in a time of flooding. Abraham receives a territory and an heir to rule over his territory. Jacob receives herds, flocks and wives. Hagar is brought to water in the wilderness. An angel delivers Lot from destruction. Joseph is delivered from death and elevated from a slave to the grand vizier of Egypt.

God reveals through prophets and in visions and dreams. Abraham visited the prophet who sat under a great oak at Mamre. The old man Abraham had visions (Gen. 15) and the young men Jacob and Joseph had dreams. Echoing Joel 2:28, Acts 2:17 says, "Your young men will see visions, and your old men will dream dreams. In the "last days" the young will be as wise as the old visionaries and the old will be a spry as the young dreamers.

God appoints priests to serve his people. Melchizedek comes to Abraham after the battle and brings bread and wine. He offers prayers and receives a tithe from Abraham (Gen. 14:20).

God appoints rulers to uphold the law. The Kushite kingdom builder Nimrod establishes cities with government officials and builds a great empire in Mesopotamia. Genesis 36 lists other ancient rulers; the Horite Hebrew rulers of Edom who were known for their wisdom (Jeremiah 49:7). Genesis 36:31 speaks of the great antiquity of the Horite rulers: "These are the kings who reigned in Edom before any king ruled in Israel."

Among the Horite Hebrew the appointment of priests, rulers, the chosen sacrifice, and the Mother of the Son of God was represented by divine overshadowing.

God's son is called the "Seed" in Genesis 3:15. He was expected to be born of the Woman (not Eve) by divine overshadowing of the Spirit, just as the Angel explained to Mary: "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God." (Luke 1:35)

Though the cultural contexts of Genesis often seem strange, the God of Genesis is familiar to people who are steeped in the catholic faith of the Church. We affirm that God is Father, Son and Spirit. We affirm that God is merciful, and He makes provision for human failings, even giving His son as the appointed sacrifice through whom we receive by faith the forgiveness of sins and the promise of immortality.

Related reading: The Substance of Abraham's FaithJudaism is Not the Faith of Abraham; On Blood and the Impulse to Immortality; The Ra-Horus-Hathor Narrative

Saturday, September 28, 2019

The Killing of Abel

An 11th-century ivory relief from Salerno, Italy (now in the Louvre).

"Cain [Kan] spoke to Abel his brother. And when they were in the field [sadeh in Hebrew; gan in Akkadian], Cain rose up against his brother Abel and killed him." (Genesis 4:8)

Alice C. Linsley

Note that the Genesis text does not mention what Kain said Abel beforehand, nor what Abel answered. Is it possible that Abel did not pay attention to something his brother told him? Perhaps Kain had warned Abel not to trespass upon his territory.

The story of the killing of Abel involves a fascinating interplay between the words kan and gan. The Akkadographic value of gan and kan is the same (see page 21), and both words refer to a field or plot of land. The Akkadian word kan also refers to blood, suggesting a play on words: Abel's blood (kan) cried to God from the field (kan).

As a shepherd, Abel would have been a man of the fields. Apart from the Akkadian association of field and blood (kan), the word "field" in this passage seems benign, so what precipitated the killing?

The idea of two offerings, one accepted by God and the other rejected, is likely a later embellishment. It serves the purpose of a later source. If we remove this detail, a different picture emerges.

Some have speculated that Abel's flocks trespassed on Cain's land and an argument ensued. Or Kain may have enticed Abel to enter a region over which Kain exercised control.

For Abel, entering the territory of an angry older brother may have been a deadly mistake. This interpretation is supported by the Hebrew word sadeh which means field, territory, or country.

The theme of a younger brother entering the territory of an older brother is found in the story of Jacob returning to Edom where Esau ruled as Isaac's heir. Though Esau went out to meet Jacob and greeted him hospitably, Jacob was wise to not settle in Esau's territory.

Among ruling families, the older brother's claims are taken seriously. To insure that Isaac was established as the ruler over his father's territory in Edom, Abraham took two important steps. He gained a second wife for Isaac in the person of Rebekah, Isaac's patrilineal cousin bride; and he gave gifts to his other sons and sent them away from Isaac (Gen. 25:6).

Is there evidence that Kain was a ruler over a territory? Yes, there is abundant evidence.

The name of Cain's firstborn son (Gen. 4:17) is Enoch which is related to the Nilo-Saharan word anochie or anochi, meaning "one who is to follow" as an heir to the throne. Among the Igbo, anochie means “a replacer” or “to replace.” A Nigerian anthropologist reports that, "Anochie means direct heir to a throne."

Cain was a city builder (Gen. 4:17) and cities were built by rulers. He named the city after his son Enoch.

Cain's wife named their first-born son after her father, which was the pattern among Abraham's ruler-priest ancestors.

By the time that Jude wrote his epistle (c. 68 AD) Cain was solidly established as the archetype of an earthly ruler. Jude warns those who might abandon Christ that God punishes those who rebel against Him. He uses three men as examples: Cain the ruler, Balaam the prophet, and Korah the priest.

King Solomon was visited by a great queen of the royal house of Sheba. Her title was Kandake (rendered "Candace" in English). Kandake is not a proper name. It is a royal title and the female counterpart to Kain/Kan.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Chiefs of Edom

Alice C. Linsley

Genesis 36 provides a list of the chiefs of Edom. The patriarch of the Edomites is called Seir the Horite. Edom and Seir are linked in the Song of Deborah and Barak in Judges 5:3-4:
"Listen, O kings! Give ear, O princes! I will sing to the LORD; I will sing praise to the LORD, the God of Israel. O LORD, when You went out from Seir, when You marched from the land of Edom, the earth trembled, the heavens poured out rain, and the clouds poured down water."

Deuteronomy 68:8 declares, "The LORD came from Sinai and dawned upon us from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran and came with myriads of holy ones, with flaming fire at His right hand."

As is seen in the diagram above, Moses and Aaron were descendants of Seir, the Horite king of Edom.

The antiquity and prestige of the Edomite rulers and Teman of Edom is expressed in Jeremiah's reference to these as ancient seats of wisdom (Jeremiah 49:7). Genesis 36 explains, "These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the children of Israel."

Genesis 36 lists the chiefs also: Bela, the son of Beor; Jobab, the son of Zerah of Bozrah; Husham of the land of the Temanites; Hadad, the son of Bedad, and Samlah of Masrekah."

Genesis 36:15 lists four chiefs born to Esau's son, Eliphaz: Teman, Omar, Zepho, and Kenaz. One of Seir's royal daughters was named Timna. Timna married Eliphaz.

The Edomite chief Teman likely served as a ruler-priest at the shrine of Teman, a site excavated in 1975 by the Tel Aviv University archaeologist Ze’ev Meshel and his team. The site is known as Horvat Teman. In the Bible is is called Teman of Edom. The Bedouin call the place Kuntillet 'Ajrud which means “the solitary hill of the water source.” That is the perfect description of an ancient Horite Hebrew high place.

The finds from Horvat Teman are fascinating and have stirred much debate. Among the finds are two large storage jars that weighed about 30 pounds each. The jars are painted with images believed to be deities, humans, and animals. There are symbols and a number of inscriptions, including three that refer to Yahweh.

The drawings reveal an ancient Egyptian context indicating that Nilotic peoples lived in the Sinai. One image is a sophisticated mural of an Egyptian ruler (reconstruction shown below).

King Hezekiah in the late eighth century BC initiated a campaign in Judah to destroy all the ancient images. “He removed the high places, broke down the pillars, and cut down the sacred pole. He broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for until those days the people of Israel had made offerings to it” (2 Kings 18:4).

In doing so, explains the Bible, Hezekiah “did what was right in the sight of the Lord.” But was Hezekiah motivated only by “the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses”? Or was his iconoclasm an attempt to impose a new religion for political purposes? Iconoclasts seek to rewrite the prevailing narrative by destroying the old.

Evidence of an ancient and prosperous kingdom

Edom had a large copper ore zone with industrial scale copper production. Radiocarbon analysis of charred wood, grain and fruit in several sediment layers revealed two major phases of copper processing, first in the 12th and 11th centuries, and later in the 10th and 9th BC.

Dr. Thomas E. Levy stated, "Only a complex society such as a paramount chiefdom or primitive kingdom would have the organizational know-how to produce copper metal on such an industrial scale." 

In the early 2000's, led by Dr. Levy lead an archaeological survey that yielded earlier dates than had been assigned to the Edomite kingdom. The team uncovered scarabs, ceramics, metal arrowheads, hammers, grinding stones, and slag heaps.

Evidence was found of fortifications and over 100 building complexes. Khirbat en-Nahas, 30 miles north of Petra, was an ancient Edomite site. Khirbat en-Nahas means "ruins of copper" in Arabic. Nahash means serpent in Hebrew. As an adjective it means shining bright, like burnished copper. The ruins of Khirbat en-Nahas spread over 24 acres, and the fortifications enclose an area 240 by 240 feet.

Abraham's was a chief of Edom. His territory extended between the settlements of his two wives. Sarah resided in Hebron and Keturah resided in Beersheba.  

The Greeks called Edom "Idumea" which means "land of red people." Esau of Edom is described as red and hairy. King David, who had Edomite blood, is also described as red or ruddy.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Final)

All rights reserved. If you borrow, please cite this page. This information represents 35 years of research.

Alice C. Linsley

When it comes to understanding the gender distinctions in the sacred Tradition received from the Hebrew and which are implicit in Scripture, we must dismiss the false narrative that the social structure of the biblical Hebrew was patriarchal. It was not.

In anthropology, a patriarchal social structure is defined by the following conditions:

1. Descent is traced through the paternal line only (Part 1)
2. Inheritance rights come through the father's lineage only (Part 2)
3. The right to rule is vested with males only (Part 3)
4. A pattern of patrilocal residence; that is, the bride lives with the groom's clan/family (Part 4)
5. the ruling body or governing council consists exclusively of males (Part 5)
6. ultimate authority rests with a male figure such as a patriarch, a chief or a king (Part 6)

None of these conditions are true of Abraham’s Horite Hebrew people. In fact, the Horite Hebrew appear to be unusually respectful of their women compared to other ancient populations. 

The biblical Hebrew traced their lineages through both the male and female lines. This is why Luke and Matthew give two genealogies for Jesus. This double unilineal descent pattern is expressed in the entrance twin pillars of Solomon’s temple. One pillar was called Boaz, after Solomon’s paternal great great grandfather and the other pillar was called Jachin after Solomon’s maternal great great grandfather.

The biblical Hebrew traced lineage both patrilineally and matrilineally, with a particular focus on prominent or "righteous" ancestors. Both male and female ancestors are remembered, though it is more common for male ancestors to be named in the biblical texts. 

Inheritance was passed down through both the mother and the father. The inheritance laws among the biblical Hebrew are complex because the ruler had two first born sons. Provision was made for both sons to receive an inheritance. Additionally, grants were made to the sent-away sons of concubines.

Daughters could petition to receive inheritance. By levirate marriage a widow was able to preserve her deceased husband's holdings for his son. In an extremely archaic practice, inheritance rights were attached to whoever had possession of  “teraphim” which were ancestor figurines.

The Right to Rule
The right to rule depended on one’s rank and authority more than one’s gender. Rank and authority were determined by the antiquity of the clan and its reputation. According to Genesis 36:31, the Horite Hebrew “are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the children of Israel.” That being the case, the Horite clans of Edom were especially respected. Jeremiah notes that the rulers of Edom and Teman of Edom were renown for their wisdom (Jer. 49:7).

The biblical data reveals that Hebrew women ruled their households and exercised considerable influence in their social circles as the wives and daughters of high-ranking priests. These women invested wisely, had servants, managed real estate, and owned property. Some are so important that they are named in the Genesis king lists: Naamah, Anah and Oholibamah are examples. Anah is called a "chief" in Genesis 36.

Residence: Scripture indicates that the biblical Hebrew had at least four residential arrangements: patrilocal, matrilocal, neolocal, and avunculocal. The residence of married couples depended on the social position of the groom. 

The residence of widows depended on their eligibility to remarry. Widows who were not eligible to remarry lived in the households of their fathers. This is why Judah told Tamar to return to her father's house (Gen. 38:11). On the other hand, Naomi told her widowed daughter-in-law to return to their “mother’s house” in the hope that they would remarry (Ruth 1:8).

Some widows resided in the Temple precincts or at shrines. Anna is an example. She was a widow for 84 years. "She never left the temple, but continued to worship there night and day with times of fasting and prayer." (Luke 2:36-38)

Upon the death of Terah, Abraham's older brother ruled over Terah's holdings in Mesopotamia. Abraham became a sent-away son. Sent-away sons, like Abraham and Jacob, often lived in the households of their maternal uncles. This is called "avunculocal residence.” This is why Jacob was sent to live with his maternal uncle Laban.

The clan to which the individual belonged was not based on where the person resided. It depended on the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Hebrew people. For example, upon her marriage to Methuselah, Naamah belonged to her husband's clan, but her first born son belonged to the clan of Naamah's father, Lamech the Elder. That is why the son was given the name Lamech.

It is not true that the ruling body or governing council consisted exclusively of males. Ruling persons included males and females, and gender was not the only factor in determining who would govern.

In determining who should govern, the status and antiquity of one's clan was a factor. Certain Hebrew clans were known to produce rulers. Among them were the clans of Ram, Sheba, and Shobal. Other clans, such as the clan of Asher, were known to produce prophets, and still other clans, such as the clan of Caleb, produced great warriors.

Totems can be used to trace ancestry, the relationship between clans, marriage ties, and prominent rulers. The rank of the clans depended on their animal totem. The totems represented the position of planets and constellations. The lion is one of the four figures of Ezekiel's merkabah (solar chariot), a six-spoke symbol that appears on the ossuary boxes of the high priests and their family members. The lion was associated with the Sun. Therefore, the lion clans were preferred when selecting a high king. These clans included the clans of Judah and Shobal.

1 Chronicles 2:50 gives Hur as the firstborn son of Caleb and Ephrathah. Hur is associated with the Horite settlement of Bethlehem. Hur’s first born son was Shobal, a high-raking Horite Hebrew chief.

Women also ruled. Salome Alexandra ruled over Judea from BC 76-67. She was one of two queens who ruled in Judea. Huldah served as a royal adviser to the king. She lived in Jerusalem with her husband, Shallum, who was in charge of the priestly vestments. The narrative in 2 Kings 22 reveals the high esteem with which she was regarded by the king and the people.

Deborah's ruled over Israel from her oasis that was marked by a large date nut palm. It was between the settlements of Ramah and Bethel. The people had to go out to her for counsel, just as people had to travel to the wilderness to consult with John the Baptist.

The first born son of the ruler-priest's second wife (usually a patrilineal cousin) became a high ranking official in the territory of his maternal grandfather. Abraham's son Joktan (Yaqtan) was a high ranking official in the territory of his maternal grandfather, after whom he was named. This first born son of the second wife was named after his maternal grandfather. This explains why the Bible speaks of two men named Joktan, Esau, Enoch, Lamech, Nahor, etc. This "cousin bride's naming prerogative" is a distinctive feature of the social pattern of the biblical Hebrew.

Anah is listed as a clan chief among the Horite Hebrew of Edom. She was the mother of Oholibamah and Dishon. The clan totem for Dishon was the gazelle.

Finally, we glimpse the powerful influence of the royal mother in the story of Bathsheba appearing before King Solomon. When Bathsheba went to King Solomon to speak to him for Adonijah, the king stood up to meet her, bowed down to her and sat down on his throne. He had a throne brought for the king's mother, and she sat down at his right hand. (1 Kings 2:19)

Ultimate Authority

For the Horite Hebrew ultimate authority is expressed in the pervasive representation of the High God by the sun, the great light that gives light to the world. Abraham’s Horite Hebrew people perceived the High God as having male qualities. He (Ra or Ani) was called the father of a divine a son (Horus or Enki). He was believed to appoint by overshadowing, and to inseminate the earth.

We are not inclined to worship God in the same way or to agree on every point of theology. Nevertheless, there is an overarching Tradition upon which all who follow Jesus Messiah agree: that God has self-revealed in the God-Man Jesus, the Son of God, who came into the world to save sinners, to overcome death, and to restore perfect communion with the Father. This is the unique claim of Christianity.

To that claim, we must add that the Messianic Tradition is received, not invented. The Messianic Faith has very deep roots in the religious yearnings of archaic populations. The Church builds and edifies its members by continually resourcing in the Messianic tradition received from our spiritual father Abraham and his Horite Hebrew people.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Time to jettison the "common ancestry" theory?

A. anamensis skull

Archaic humans show a range of physical features that are found in modern humans. Those features include high broad foreheads, low receding foreheads, low cheek bones, high cheek bones, protruding chin, cranial size generally proportional to body size, dentition within the range of primitive and modern humans, and hands and feet like modern humans.

That assessment of the data is leading paleoanthropologists to rethink the prevailing evolutionary theory, according to this recent statement made by Hester Hanegraef.
"Discoveries all over the world in the last decade have led to a complete rethinking of our evolutionary past. It shows that new fossils do not always support existing hypotheses, and that we must be prepared to change our views and formulate new theories based on the evidence at hand."

Note the protruding jaw of this eighth century BC blacksmith.

The 1500 bones and bone fragments recovered by the Rising Star Expedition belonged to at least 15 individuals. The adults were about 5 feet tall. Parts of the skeletons resemble modern human anatomy while other skeletal remains resemble the australopiths, like Lucy. In other words, this burial pit contained the remains of people who ranged in appearance about as much as modern humans.The bones/bodies were ritually deposited over “some period of time.”

This 250,000 year hand of Homo naledi is virtually identical to that of modern humans.

This find is being presented as a "new branch" of homo, called Homo naledi. H. naledi is viewed as slightly more human than the A. australopithecine and slightly less human than modern humans.

Jeffrey Schwartz thinks that the H. naledi remains represent two or more different species. He makes his case in Newsweek: “Why the Homo Naledi Discovery May Not Be Quite What it Seems”

On the other hand, John Hawks states that "The variation within the collection is not high, it is extraordinarily low." Hawks reports: "Homo naledi has a mosaic of features that include some that compare most closely to more primitive australopiths, and others that compare more closely to Homo. How do we know that this is one species rather than a jumble of species mixed together? Simple: every feature that is repeated in the sample is nearly identical in all individuals that preserve it."

Similar speculation arises around A. anamensis. This find has been in the news this week. A. anamensis lived approximately between 4.2 and 3.8 million years ago. Nearly one hundred fossil specimens are known from Kenya and Ethiopia, representing over 20 individuals.

The shape of the end of this lower leg bone, or tibia, indicates that A. anamensis walked upright. Most features align with those identified with A afarensis. The teeth in this jawbone are large relative to the body size of A. anamensis. The back teeth are also large relative to the front teeth. Both primitive traits are characteristic of all Australopithecus.

Hester Hanegraef notes that A. anamensis and A. afarensis overlap for at least 100,000 years, "making it impossible for A. afarensis to have evolved gradually from one single ancestral group. In fact, it is becoming increasingly obvious that most species on our evolutionary lineage likely evolved by branching off from existing groups." (Read more here.)

The question remains: Do these early Homo fossils represent stages or branches of evolutionary development from a common ancestor, or do they represent archaic humans with the same range of physical diversity as modern humans?

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Appointment by Divine Overshadowing

Alice C. Linsley

Many ancient shrine cities had names that began with the solar symbol Y. Jerusalem was called Yeru. On the border of Nubia and Egypt was a holy shrine city on Elephantine Island. It was called Yebu. According to "The Diplomatists Handbook For Africa" by Count Charles Kinsky, Yebu is a variant of Jebu. Yeru-salem was a Jebusite city.

The Y symbol designates a divinely appointed place, servant, ruler or sacrifice. The divine appointment was by the "overshadowing" of the Sun. This is represented by the initial Y in the Hebrew names of biblical rulers: Yaqtan (Joktan); Yachin (Joachin), Yishmael (Ishmael); Yishbak; Yitzak (Isaac); Yacob (Jacob); Yosef (Joseph); Yetro (Jethro); Yeshai (Jesse), Yonah (Jonah), Yoel, and Yeshua (Joshua/Jesus). The Y is a solar cradle.

Divine appointment by overshadowing is symbolized by the sun resting in the Y. This is a common image in the ancient world.

At the shrine cities of Dan and Bethel in the kingdom of Israel the central image was the divinely overshadowed bull calf. This is the same image that Aaron fabricated in the wilderness. It is a Messianic image of the appointed sacrifice.

Nowhere in Scripture is Aaron criticized for making the golden calf. However, the people who worshiped the image are criticized. Here a distinction must be made between the symbolism of the golden bull calf and the actions of the people. The distinction is clear when we consider that Christians do not worship the cross. We worship the Messiah who died on the cross to make atonement for sin.

The ram was also shown overshadowed on ancient monuments. The ram provided by God on Mount Moriah was a symbol of the son of God, Horus. Horus, the son of God, was said to rise in the east as a lamb and set in the west as a ram in mature strength. He was called Horus of the two horizon, which expressed two aspects of his nature as both meek and fierce. The Horite Hebrew recognized God Father and God Son. The son was sometimes shown as the divinely appointed ram on ancient monuments, and was a symbol of Jesus among early Christians. 

The Y was a symbol of the long horns of the Acholi cattle. It emerged as a sacred symbol among Abraham's Proto-Saharan cattle-herding ancestors. This breed is the oldest known bovine breed among the Nilotic peoples. 

Hathor, the mother of Horus, is shown on ancient monuments wearing the solar cradle. She foreshadows the Virgin Mary who conceived by divine overshadowing (Luke 1).

A reader of Just Genesis, Sarki Arzika, has written about a connection to the Hausa of Nigeria:

Dear Alice,

Concerning the Y shaped forms you write about, this is a characteristic of ancient Hausa architecture which were of triangular forms and mounted with symbols like rabbit ears at each corner. This Y shape is present on some ancient capes used generally by Maharba (hunters), Priests, and Kings.

Related reading: The Urheimat of the Canaanite Y; The Substance of Abraham's Faith; Solar Symbolism of the Proto-Gospel; Ram Symbolism in the Ancient World; What Abraham Discovered on Mount Moriah