Friday, April 29, 2016

As in the days of Noah

The Apostles asked Jesus, "When shall these things be?" They were asking about the dawning of the Kingdom of God. In reply, Jesus said:
"But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone. For the coming of the Son of Man will be just like the days of Noah. For as in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark… Then two men will be in the field; one is taken and one is left. Two women will be grinding at the mill; one is taken and one is left. Watch therefore, for you do not know on what day your Lord is coming." (Matthew 24:36-42)
In this passage from Matthew's Gospel Jesus compares the coming Day of Judgement to events surrounding Noah's survival of the flood. In that great flood some died and some were spared.  Those who were spared owed their salvation to God's intervention in their lives.  Noah, a great ruler in the region of Lake Chad, was a righteous man who listened to God and obeyed.  Likewise, on that great Day, some will experience salvation through faith while others will be lost. This passage is about the Judgement. To make it be about the "Rapture" is to do damage to the text.

The term "rapture" is taken from St. Jerome's Latin translation of 1 Thessalonians 4:17—"we will be caught up" [Latin: rapiemur]. The Rapture is a cherished doctrine of American Fundamentalists. It has been perpetuated through popular books and movies. The doctrine maintains that Christ will return twice, first to the sky where He will gather to Himself all the elect, and later to the Earth for the Day of Judgment. A deep study of the Bible does NOT support this view.

The rapture was popularized in the 1970s by Hal Lindsey’s novels, especially The Late Great Planet Earth, and more recently by the apocalyptic fiction of Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins. These writers were elaborating on an idea that appeared in the thought of John Nelson Darby, considered to be the founder of Dispensationalism. Belief in "the Rapture" is a key element of Dispensationalism.

John Nelson Darby

For Americans, the most influential figure of Dispensationalism was C.I. Scofield who perpetuated this doctrine in the footnotes of his Scofield Reference Bible. Many who uncritically read the Scofield Bible have adopted the doctrine, though it has no precedent in the Church or in the writings of the Church Fathers.

According to Dispensationalists, when Christ returns, those who have died in Christ will be raised to a glorious state, along with all living believers. As a body these will be caught up from the Earth to be with Jesus Christ. This is the assumption based on 1 Thessalonians 4:16–17, which states, "For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the archangel’s call, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first; then we who are alive, who are left, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air; and so we shall always be with the Lord."

Here the Apostle Paul is stressing the bodily resurrection and proper order. He is describing the Last Day, not an intermediate event when the faithful are "caught up" as was the mysterious Enoch of old.

In the Bible, God reveals enough about the future to give us hope, but not so much that we can trust in ourselves for salvation. Noah was a faithful ruler who recognized the Creator as his God and obeyed Him as his Lord. He lived in a time much like our own, with the effects of climate change and a dependence on false spirituality.

Before His ascension, the Apostles asked Jesus, "Lord, is it at this time You are restoring the kingdom to Israel?" Jesus said to them: "It is not for you to know the times or dates the Father has set by his own authority." (Acts 1:7)

Because no one knows the day and hour when the second advent will occur, many assume that it is impossible to say anything more precise in regard to Christ's return than what is stated at Matthew 24 and Acts 1:7. However, we should ask this question: "What were the days of Noah like?" Today there is a great deal of information about Noah's homeland at the time of the flood. We also have a good picture of the customs of the people around him that displeased the Creator.

Many who lived in the region of Noah's homeland relied on shamanic ritual to gain favor from the spirits. The ruler-priests of Noah's line did not perform these rituals. Instead they offered burnt sacrifice to atone for the sins of their people and they did not consult spirits. Their worldview was distinct from the worldview of the prehistoric pagans, just as today the worldview of Christian priests is distinct from the worldview of shamans and modern pagans who rely on rituals rather than the atoning work of the Incarnate Christ.

It is sufficient for us to know that God has appointed a day for the restoring of all things. It is sufficient for us who await that day to continue in the Apostles' teaching, in the breaking of bread, and in prayer.

As with Noah, we are to be vigilant, ever watchful, heeding the Creator's warnings so that we are ready for the Last Day. It took many years for the waters to accumulate in Noah's homeland to the point where the great water systems overflowed into one another. So there is time, though limited, for people to be warned of the Judgement that is to come.

The Church Father Origen has this to say about the vigilance that is to characterize the Christian life:
All who listen to the depths of the gospel and live it so completely that none of it remains veiled from them care very little about whether the end of the world will come suddenly and all at once or gradually and little by little. Instead, they bear in mind only that each individual’s end or death will arrive on a day and hour unknown to him and that upon each one of us “the day of the Lord will come like a thief.” It is important therefore to be vigilant... When God the Word comes and brings an end to the progress of this life, he will gather up the one who gave “no sleep to his eyes nor slumber to his eyelids” and kept the commandment of the One who said, “Be vigilant at all times.”…But I know another kind of end for the righteous person who is able to say along with the apostle, “Far be it from me to glory except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom the world is crucified to me and I to the world.” In a certain sense, the end of the world has already come for the person to whom the world is crucified. And to one who is dead to worldly things the day of the Lord has already arrived, for the Son of man comes to the soul of the one who no longer lives for sin or for the world. (Commentary on Matthew 56)
Related reading: Noah's Ark; Dispensationalism and the Three Witnesses; The Kingdom of God in Genesis; Male Spiritual Leaders: Two Patterns; Shamanic Practice and the Priesthood; Was Noah Mesopotamian or Proto-Saharan?

Monday, April 18, 2016

Discrepancies are Evidence of Authenticity

…but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence… (1 Peter 3:15)

Alice C. Linsley

Supposed "contradictions" are one of the excuses people sometimes offer for rejecting the claims of Jesus Christ. Often these same people have little first-hand acquaintance with the Bible. They are uncritically repeating a lie.

When we consider the Gospel accounts of Jesus' birth, ministry, death and resurrection we do not encounter contradictions. We find discrepancies that result from different perspectives. In fact, if the accounts of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John agreed in every minute detail, we would have evidence of collusion among the witnesses. We would have reason to be suspicious.

J. Warner Wallace is a cold-case homicide detective and a Christian case maker at Stand to Reason.  He applied his expertize in forensic investigation to the Gospels and concluded that the testimonies are authentic. Wallace writes, "The Christian life is a rational and reasonable life that is rooted and grounded in the evidence of the Resurrection and the truth of the Bible. Christians are saved by placing their trust in Jesus, but Christians become a powerful force in their world when they commit themselves to being 'case makers' for what they believe."

My father was an attorney who handled criminal cases. He knew how to cross-examine witnesses and how to detect collusion. He was impressed after reading the different Gospel accounts by how they agree on the main events but note different details. Had they all given exactly the same testimony he would have reason to doubt them, as that is a sign of collusion or conspiracy.

That there are different accounts of an event does not mean the event was invented, nor does it indicate fabrication on the part of the witnesses. Recognition of the different contexts of Biblical writers is also recognition that they represent real people in history. Consider how this is so.

Genesis 46:27 in the Septuagint says, "Thus all the souls of Jacob's house who went to Egypt were seventy-five" but the Masoretic says, "....all the persons of the house of Jacob, that came into Egypt, were seventy." There is no contradition here, but rather a significant discrepancy that testifies to different contexts. For the Masoretes 70 represented fullness and was not intended to be taken as an exact number of people. The Sanhedrin, for example, consisted of 70 men, never more and never less. Further, the number 70 referenced the number of appointed ones in their tradition and implies that those who went down into Egypt were appointed.

Numbers in the Bible are usually symbolic and reflect a specific contexts. For example, the number 40, as in the phrase "40 days and 40 nights" has a Nilotic context. The Nile flooded for 40 days and the people who had left their homes waited another 40 nights before returning home. It took "40 days and 40 nights" for the waters to recede. Though the book of Daniel is rich in number symbolism it is significant that the number 40 does not appear in that book. The context of Daniel is Babylonian rather than Nilotic and the Babylonian number symbolism is different.

The Masoretes were Temple scholars of the 6th–10th centuries AD, long after the time of Moses. They had been greatly influenced by the theology and number symbolism of their ancestors who had been in Babylon. For the Masoretes 7 was a sacred number. The number is associated with the ancient Habiru/ Hebrew priesthood. This is evident in the priestly account of Noah's flood where Noah to told to take 7 sets of "clean" animals onto the ark. Contrast this with the older account in which Noah is told to take 1 set: male and female. (Note the binary feature; male-female, a distinguishing mark of the older version of the flood).

What I find most provocative about this discrepancy is the suggestion in the Masoretic text that not all the Habiru went with Jacob down to Egypt. This is certainly the case since many Hebrew clans besides Jacob's remained in Canaan. Among them were the clans of Seir, Elon, Esau and Uz. Uz was Job's clan.

Genesis 38 tells us that Judah, who had gone down to Egypt with his father, came back to Canaan where he had relations with Tamar. It appears that the ruling men of Jacob's clan continued to interact with kinsmen and business associates in Judah, Edom and Beersheba.

When we dig deeply into the Bible we find that discrepancies reveal different perspectives and traditions, but they also point to a shared religious tradition that can be traced to the dawn of human existence. The features of this shared tradition have been of great interest to Biblical anthropologists.

Related reading: Number Symbolism in the Bible; The Life Spans of Methuselah and Lamech; Who Is Jesus Christ?; Noah's Ark; Levi-Strauss and Derrida on Binary Oppositions; Binary Sets

Thursday, April 7, 2016

The Years of Waiting for the Promised Heir

Now Sarai, Abram’s wife, had borne him no children. But she had an Egyptian slave named Hagar; so she said to Abram, “The Lord has kept me from having children. Go, sleep with my slave; perhaps I can build a family through her.”

Abram agreed to what Sarai said. So after Abram had been living in Canaan ten years, Sarai his wife took her Egyptian slave Hagar and gave her to her husband to be his wife. He slept with Hagar, and she conceived. (Genesis 16:1-4)

Alice C. Linsley

Abraham is a pivotal figure of history. He is a sent-away son who established control over a territory that extended between Kiriath-Arba (Hebron) and Beersheba. His territory was entirely in the region of ancient Edom (Idumea) and he was kin to the Horite rulers of Edom listed in Genesis 36.

Abraham's first wife was Sarah, his half-sister. Sarah resided in Hebron. His second wife was Keturah, one of his patrilineal cousins. Keturah resided in Beersheba. Both Hebron and Beersheba were in the land of Edom, called "Idumea" by the Greeks. Idumea means "land of red people." Abraham's territory extended between the settlements of his two wives and was entirely in Edom.

It was the norm for Habiru rulers to have two wives. They often had two concubines also. Abraham's concubines were Hagar, the mother is Ishmael, and Masek, the mother of Eliezer. Neither of these sons was the "proper heir" to Abraham according to the Habiru marriage and ascendancy pattern. Eliezer was Abraham's heir according to Horite law, only until Issac was born. The proper heir for the Horite Habiru rulers was always the first born son of the half-sister wife.

According to Genesis 16, Sarah was barren and had given up hope of having a child. This is after she and Abraham had been living in Canaan for 10 years. During those years Abraham had already taken his second wife, Keturah. She born Joktan (Yaqtan), Abraham's first born son. However, Joktan was not Abraham's proper heir. As the son of the cousin bride, Joktan was named after his maternal grandfather in whose kingdom he would serve as a high ranking official. According to Genesis 25, Keturah bore Abraham six sons: Joktan, Yisbak, Midian, Zimran, Medan, and Shuah. The name Yishbak means “sent away.”

Abraham had four first born sons: Joktan, Ishmael (Yishmael), Eliezer, and Isaac (Yitzak), probably born in that order. Joktan became the head of the Joktanite tribes of Arabia. Yismael became the father of the Sinai Bedouins. His Paran settlement was on the way to Egypt as indicated by these words: This is the genealogy of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s maidservant, bore to Abraham. And these were the names of the sons of Ishmael: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth, then Kadar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadar, Tema, Jetur, Naphish and Kedemah. These were the sons of Ishmael and these were their names, by their towns and settlements… (Gen. 25:12-16).

No sons are named for Eliezer. He may have been a eunuch, not necessarily a castrated man, but perhaps one who is impotent, celibate, or not inclined to marry and procreate for legal reasons.

Yitzak fathered Jacob (Yacob/Yisrael), and Esau the Elder. Esau and Jacob were contemporaries of Seir the Horite, named in Genesis 36. The initial Y in these names indicates divine appointment by being overshadowed by the Sun. It is the symbol of the long horns of the bull and represents a solar cradle.

Clans related to Abraham's wife Keturah and her father Joktan the Edler

The first born sons ruled among the related clans of Horite Habiru. Abraham’s people. However, the first born sons of wives ranked above the first born sons of concubines. Joktan ranked over Eliezar, and Issac ranked over Ishmael. Joktan was a governor in the southern settlements of his maternal grandfather (Dedan, Ramaah and Sheba) and Isaac ruled the northern settlements of his father Abraham (Hebron, Beersheba, Gerar and Engedi).

Sarah's barren state would have caused her even greater misery after Abraham took his second wife and began to bear him sons. Here we find echoes of the Rachel-Leah conflict, and the Hannah-Penninah conflict. In these narratives, the scorned or barren wife is vindicated by divine action on their behalf.  Their long years a waiting were turned from sorrow to joy.

See the pattern? We await the return of the Promised Son, the Heir to the eternal kingdom. He has overcome death by death. He will turn our sorrow to joy and wipe away every tear.

Related reading: Who Was Abraham?; Abraham's Sons; Abraham's Complaint; The Urheimat of the Canaanite Y; Abraham's First Born Son; Edom and the Horites; The Barren and Grieving Rejoice

Saturday, April 2, 2016

Hittite Religion

Polygonal masonry chamber of Suppiluliuma II in Hattusa, modern Turkey

Alice C. Linsley

Before the time of the Hittites, the priests of the archaic world who served at the Sun temples had dispersed widely in service of kingdom builders known in Genesis as the mighty men of old. These priests are mentioned in ancient texts as 'Apiru, O'piru, Ha'piru and Ha'biru (Hebrew). They served among the peoples of Anatolia, including the Hatti who controlled a territory from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Ḫattuša (modern Boğazkale in Turkey) was the administrative center as early as BC 2500. It was a shrine city with more than 30 temples.

More than 232 letters of state correspondence have been found at Hattusa. One is a letter from the ruler of Išuwa to the "Chief of the Charioteers." Asan administrative center Hattusa had many scribes schooled in Akkadian. The Old Hittite period reflects the Akkadian Sargonic tradition. Sar-gon means "most high king" or "king of kings" and is a conjunction of two African words sar/sarki and gon. The words sar and gon both refer to a ruler. When placed together - sar-gon - these words are a form of emphatic reduplication. The word sarki refers to red ocher and to priests.

Many of the priests of the ancient world, including the priests of ancient Hatti, were devotees of Horus. The shrine centers of the greater region reflect this in their names: Horoztepe (Horus Hill); Kültepe (Ash Hill, place of sacrifice) and Išuwa (Yeshua?).

Green cube at Hattusa

This green stone, believed to be a gift from the Egyptian king with whom the Hatti signed a treaty in BC 1258, was at the center of a Horite shrine. Among the ancient Nilotes green malachite symbolised the hope of resurrection. The land of the blessed dead was described as the "field of malachite." Green stones were associated with Horus, whose animal totem was the falcon. The Book of the Dead speaks of how the deceased will become a falcon "whose wings are of green stone" (chapter 77). The Eye of Horus amulet was made of green stone.

Nilotic craftsmen moved into the Tigris-Euphrates region and into Anatolia. They were called the Nes and their animal totem was the serpent. The word Nes is associated with the rulers of the Nile. In ancient Egypt Nesu biti referred to the ruler of a united Upper and Lower Nile.

Mother and infant
Bronze figurine found at Horoztepe

It is thought that the Hittites introduced iron work to Anatolia, but the term "Hittite" is an anachronism. They called themselves Nes and their language was called Nesli. The word Nuzi is derived from the words Nes and Nuz. Nuzi was a Horite administrative center on the Tigris. The Horites were devotees of Horus and his mother Hathor, the patroness of metal workers. Documents from the household of a Nuzi official named Tehiptilla record grants of food, clothing, and shelter to a number of Habiru in his service. One who likely served in a military role received a horse.

The Habiru were Afro-Asiatics and already well dispersed before the time of Abraham. Among them were castes of metal workers whose ancestral lines intermarried from time immemorial. The NS mark represents the metal working tradition. Nahash means serpent.

As an adjective it means shining bright, like burnished copper. The clans of HeT were Bronze Age smiths who ranged from Timnah to Anatolia. The serpent image was sacred among them, just as it was for Moses and the people of Israel in the wilderness. Abraham interacted with the Hittite clans of Het who are listed in Genesis 10. HT is the Hebrew and Arabic root for copper - nahas-het. The mountains near the Hittite center of Isuwa had rich deposits of copper which were mined in antiquity.

Sun Temples

The religion of the Hittites, like that of Abraham's Nilotic cattle-herding ancestors, was henotheistic. They believed in a supreme Creator who was served by lesser "gods" or assisting divine powers. The deification of righteous rulers followed logically from the idea that divinely appointed powers on earth were also lesser gods (Allohi in Arabic and Hausa, Elohiym in Hebrew).

The Hittites conceived of the cosmos as God's sacred pyramid or temple. Elevated sites were the preferred locations for their shrines and temples. These "high places" were fortified. Sometimes the names reflect the Nilotic peoples who founded them. Such is the case of the Horite shrine on Mt. Silpius overlooking the Orontes (Draco) in Turkey. This ancient site was called Meroe.

The high elevations made it possible for the priests to offer prayers as the Sun rose and the light of God entered the temple from the east. This practice is reflected at the Horite temple of Nekhen, dating to BC 3500. As the Sun set, God left the temple toward the west. Rulers were buried in pyramids with the hope that they would rise with the Sun and lead their people in procession to immortality. St. Paul refers to this belief when he writes about how Christ rose from the grave, leading captives in his train. (Ephesians 4:7-9)

This is the symbolism of the dung beetle (sand scarab), which comes out of the sand when the Sun rises and returns to the sand as night approaches. The daily cycle follows the pattern of the Sun's journey and life after death. The female beetle lays her eggs in the sand and when the eggs hatch, she gives her body to be eaten by her newborn young (cf. Jesus' words, "This is my Body given for you...").

The Sun and the scarab spoke to the ancient Horites of their deity, HR (Horus). He was regarded, with his father Ra, as the fixer of boundaries. Horos refers to the boundaries of an area, or a landmark, or a term. From horos come the English words hour, horizon and horoscope. The Indo-European root for year is yeHr-, yet another reference to Horus. The association of Horus with the horizon is seen in the word Har-ma-khet, meaning Horus of the Horizon. Today the word horoscope connotes astrology, but the word originally meant "observer/watcher of the hours/times."

A Binary Worldview

In Hittite religion, the Sun represented the male principle and the moon (the lesser, refulgent light) represented the female principle (Heb: hokma, Gr: sophia). The sun was the symbol of the Creator who ruled the heavens and the solar arc represents the Creator's daily journey.

The sun and moon represent a binary set, and in their binary worldview preference for the sun was not an arbitrary preference, but rather, it was based on astronomical observation. The sun is to the moon what the male is to the female, superior in size and strength. This is characteristic of the binary worldview of the Horite Habiru, a worldview that is quite distinct from the dualistic worldview that comes to dominate the region after the Axial Age.

In the binary worldview one entity in the binary set is observed to be superior in some way to its opposite. This is expressed in Genesis 1:16: "God made the two great lights: the greater to rule the day, the lesser light to rule the night." In a dualistic worldview the entities in the binary set are regarded as equal (ying-yang). The Sun was associated with masculine virtues because solar rays were believed to inseminate the earth over which the sun has dominion. The moon, as the sun's celestial companion, was associated with feminine virtues. Egyptian queens painted themselves white before they appeared in public, whereas their husbands sought skin darkened by the Sun (see image above). Doubtless, the ancients had observed the moon's influence on the woman's monthly cycle. This is reflected in living languages. In French, for example, “le moment de la lune”refers to menstruation.

Solar images abound in Hittite culture. These are usually works of metal found in the royal tombs or on the standards of rulers. One example is the long horns of bulls and deer, such as appear on this bronze standard found at Horoztepe (shown right).

The horns of the bull were a solar cradle that indicated divine appointment by overshadowing. Images of Hathor, the mother of Horus, show her overshadowed by the Sun resting in the long horns of a bull. Divine appointment of the ruler was indicated by the solar cradle Y at the beginning of the ruler's name: Yishmael, Yitzak, Yacob, Yeshua, etc. and by the ili/itti suffix in the Akkadian and Nilotic languages.

The March/April 2016 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review shows a statue found at the principal temple in Hattusa. The mother of the king wears the Sun as a sign of divine appointment. This is a Hittite version of ancient Nilotic images of Hathor holding Horus on her lap (shown below)

The divine son was a ruler-priest associated with the heavens and thunder. He was regarded as the High God and was known throughout the ancient world by different names; Horus, Hromi Daba, Hesus, Grom Div, Crom Dubh. Dabog, Dagda, and Perun. This is the only European bull deity that is celebrated in the middle of the Leo sign and he is often referred to as "the Giving God."

The Giving God, sometimes called Hesus, was crucified on an oak tree. The hope of his third-day resurrection was enacted by the sowing of grain in the fields. In antiquity, this annual ritual was overseen by Horite priests who led the people in procession to the fields.

The Nilotic peoples and their dispersed descendents living in Anatolia viewed the high king as the Creator's earthly representative. This is clearly evident with King Hattusili I who claimed that he was divinely appointed to represent the will of the gods and that the prosperity of his people depended on his intercessions on their behalf. He moved his administrative center from Neša (near modern Kültepe) to Ḫattuša.

Related reading: The Urheimat of the Canaanite YAbraham and the HittitesA Tent for the Sun; The Sun and the Moon in Genesis; Theories of Change and Constancy; The High Places; Horned Altars and Horned Sacred Vessels; Fertility Images Among Abraham's Ancestors; The Religion of the Saka; Solar Imagery of the Proto-Gospel

Saturday, March 19, 2016

Where Ahmed Osman Goes Wrong

Alice C. Linsley

Ahmed Osman (Arabic: أحمد عثمان‎) is an Egyptian-born author and Egyptologist. Drawing on the Bible, the Qur'an, and ancient Egyptian texts, he has put forward theories about Moses and Jesus that are largely rejected by most scholars. His work has a following among the "quirky" which is discrediting to him as a scholar. Osman has much to offer, but he has ignored the anthropologically significant data of Genesis and Exodus. Though his ideas are interesting, many cannot be supported by the evidence of history, linguistics, anthropology, and molecular genetics.

Ahmed Osman
In his book "Christianity: An Ancient Egyptian Religion" Osman posits that the roots of Christianity are found in ancient Egypt. He bases this conclusion, in part, on the variants of the name Jesus which include Yeshua, Joshua, Issa, Esau and Esse. Osman focuses on the variant Esse and attempts to connect Jesus and his followers to the Essenes, a Jewish ascetic sect of the 2nd century BC–2nd century AD who lived in structured communities in Palestine and held property in common. Certainly, the Essenes were influenced by theological ideas found in ancient Egypt.

Both the Essenes and the Pharisees held expectation of Messiah as a king who would restore the Davidic dynasty and restore Israel's former glory. This hope is expressed in Psalm 110:1: The Lord (YHWH) said to my Lord (L'adoni): "Sit at my right hand until I put your enemies under your feet. L'adoni is an address for a human master. The Essenes believed that master was David. Their view of Messiah was as a political agent who would fulfill their nationalistic and spiritual hopes. Probably this is why Jesus avoided using the word "Messiah" when speaking of himself. He told Pilate that his kingdom is not of this world. This world is passing away. His kingdom is eternal. "Your kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and your dominion endures through all generations." Daniel 7:14 and Psalm 145:13

An eternal kingdom requires an immortal King. That is why Christians maintain that the bodily resurrection of Jesus is the ultimate proof of his identity as the long-awaited Son of God. Jesus' conception in the Virgin's womb by divine overshadowing is another proof of his identity. The angel explained to Mary: "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God."(Luke 1:35)

The oldest of these variants is likely Yeshua as it has the initial Y indicating divine appointment by overshadowing. This idea is found among Abraham's Proto-Saharan cattle-herding ancestors dating to at least 3500 BC. The Y depicted the long cattle horns that were worn as a solar crown. This Y mark appears in the names of many Horite Habiru/Hebrew rulers: Yaqtan (Joktan); Yishmael (Ishmael); Yishbak; Yitzak (Isaac); Yacob (Jacob); Yosef (Joseph); Yetro (Jethro); Yeshai (Jesse) and Yeshua (Joshua/Jesus).

However, the roots of Messianic expectation can be traced to one of the oldest known Horite temple at Nekhen (Sudan), a site of veneration of Horus that predates the first Egyptian dynasties. Discoveries at Nekhen continue to push back the dating of early civilizations. In May 2014, Dr. Mohamed Ibrahim announced the discovery of a Pre-Dynastic tomb at Nekhen (Hierakonpolis)
that dates to about 500 years before King Narmer and the 1st Dynasty.

Nekhen is called the Falcon City as the falcon was one of the totems of Horus, the son of Ra. The Egyptian hr means "the one on high" and is a reference to the falcon that soars in the heavens. In the Coffin Texts, Horus claims, "I have brought the ways of eternity to the twilight of the morning.  I am unique in my flight." (Passage 148)

Nekhen was a large city with an estimated population of 20,000. It had markets, breweries and a large fishing industry. The city stretched nearly 3 miles along the Nile floodplain. Votive offerings at the Nekhen temple were ten times larger than the normal mace heads and bowls found elsewhere, suggesting that this was a very prestigious shrine. Horite priests placed invocations to Horus at the summit of the fortress as the sun rose.

The solar arc signified the rising of Horus from death to life. He rose as a lamb and set in mature strength as a ram. This conception is the background story of Abraham and Isaac on Mount Moriah. The expectation that the Righteous Son would not remain in the grave is expressed in Psalm 16:10: For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.

Horus of Nekhen
Renée Friedman, who has direct knowledge of the excavations at Nekhenhas written that the "evidence of industrial production, temples, masks, mummies, and funerary architecture as early as 3500 B.C. is placing Nekhen at the forefront of traditions and practices that would come to typify Egyptian culture centuries later.

Osman on Moses, Monotheism, and the Ten Commandments

In his book The Hebrew Pharaohs of Egypt, Osman puts forth the theory that Moses and the Pharaoh Akhenaten are the same historical person. He writes that Moses “abandoned traditional Egyptian polytheism and introduced a monotheistic worship centered on the Aten… [and] erected his new temples open to the air facing eastward; in the same way as the orientation of the Heliopolis.”

Heliopolis is Biblical On (Iunu), an Annu shrine city. Osman does not seem to be aware of the Annu and their religious practices. Plato, who studied under a Horite priest of Heliopolis for thirteen years, wrote "Tell me of the God of On, which was, is and shall be." Heliopolis was the geodetic center of Egypt. The pyramid triads at Giza, Abusir and Saqqara were aligned to the obelisk at On. Baalbek (Heliopolis) in Lebanon also aligned to On.

Osman makes assumptions that should be questioned. He assumes that ancient Egyptian religion was polytheistic. However, the more we learn about the ancient Egyptians the more it appears that their religion is not a true example of polytheism. From pre-dynastic times there was only one Creator though he was identified by different names: YHWH, El, Amun, Amun-Re, Aten, Atum, Azu, Re, etc. This God has a son, Horus. The Father and the Son are inseparable and of one essence in the theology of Abraham's Horim. Horus knows the Father and the Father knows the Son. This is expressed in the Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. In the priest's prayer to the King, he says, "Horus is a soul and he recognizes his father in you..." (Utterance 423)

While "gods" are mentioned in the Egyptian texts and in the Bible, both maintain that the One God is above all other gods. In the Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts this is explicit. In a prayer addressed to the Purified Horus of the East it is said, "For you are he who oversees the gods, There is no god who oversees you!" (Utterance 573)

Horus is the bread offered to mortals. Consider this from the Pyramid Texts, mortuary texts dating from the beginning of the 4th dynasty: "O Hunger, do not come for me; go to the Abyss, depart to the flood! I am satisfied, I am not hungry because of this kmhw-bread of Horus which I have eaten." (Utterance 338) The Egyptian word km means to bring to an end, to complete, or fulfill, and hw refers to the temple or mansion at the end of the water above. Genesis speaks of this: God made the vault [expanse above] and separated the water under the vault from the water above it (Genesis 1:7).

It appears that the "kmhw-bread of Horus" is what the Church Fathers call "the bread of immortality." Concerning himself, Jesus said that "unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day" (John 6:53-54).

Osman assumes that Moses was a monotheist, which is incorrect. Moses and his Horite Habiru ancestors were henotheists, that is, they believed in one supreme uncreated Creator who is served by lesser created divine powers such as angels. Angelic or celestial beings were often portrayed as birds. Henotheism is much closer to monotheism than to polytheism.

The Creator's emblem was the Sun by which the Creator gives life to the world. The Sun was also called "Bull of bulls" because it inseminates the Earth. Consider this prayer from the Pyramid Texts: "Hail to you, Bull of bulls, when you arise!... As for my corpse, it is rejuvenated." (Utterance 336) This God has the power to give life to the dead.

The Creator overshadows those He appoints. Divine appointment applied to rulers and to the Woman (Gen. 3:15) who was to conceive the divine Seed or the Si-Re, "Son" of Re. Jesus refers to himself as the Seed in John 12:24. He tells his disciples that he is going to Jerusalem to die and when they object, he explains: "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit."

Osman notes that the Ten Commandments is clearly influenced by earlier Nilotic writings, such as Spell/Prayer 125 in the Egyptian Book of the Dead. He is correct in this. However, a much more significant influence is the Code of Ani which dates to about 2500 BC. There also is evidence of influence from the Law of Tehut which dates to about 3200 BC.

Portions of the Psalms are also found in earlier Nilotic writings. This should not surprise us since Abraham's Habiru ancestors came from the Nile Valley. The prayers of ascension in the Pyramid Texts and the Psalms of Ascent have much in common.

There are many parallels between the Psalms and the ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, a collection of funerary prayers written on coffins beginning in the First Intermediate Period. Consider this poetic depiction of the soaring Horus from the Coffin Texts (Passage 148):
"I am Horus, the great Falcon upon the ramparts of the house of him of the hidden name. My flight has reached the horizon. I have passed by the gods of Nut. I have gone further than the gods of old. Even the most ancient bird could not equal my very first flight. I have removed my place beyond the powers of Set, the foe of my father Osiris. No other god could do what I have done. I have brought the ways of eternity to the twilight of the morning. I am unique in my flight. My wrath will be turned against the enemy of my father Osiris and I will put him beneath my feet in my name of 'Red Cloak'." 

Here we find a Messianic reference that appears in Psalm 110: The Lord says to my Lord: "Sit at My right hand until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet."

Biblical References to Horus and the Horites

Horus and the Horites are referenced throughout the Bible. The Horite rulers of Edom are listed in Genesis 36. Among them are Seir, Esau the Elder, Esau the Younger, Zibeon, Ezer, and Uz.

Biblical persons with Horus names include Hur, Moses's brother-in-law, and Aaron, Moses's brother. Aaron in Arabic is Harun.

In 1 Chronicles 7:36 we find the Horus name Har-nepher: "The sons of Zophah: Suah, Harnepher, Shual, Beri, Imrah..." Har-nepher (HR-ntr/ntjr) means Horus is King/God. The Virgin Mary's name reveals her Horite ancestry. She is Miriam Daughter of Joachim Son of P-ntjr Priests of Nathan of Bethlehem. From predynastic times, ntjr designated the king. It is likely that p-ntjr means "King's priest" or is a reference to a member of the Horite ruler-priest caste.

Joseph's family lived in Nazareth, the home of the eighteenth division of priests. This division was called "Happizzez" (1 Chronicles 24:15). The word happi is of Egyptian origin and designates the Nile River.

I Chronicles 4:4 names Hur/Hor as a "father" of Bethlehem, and 1 Chronicles 2:54 names Salmon, the husband of Rahab of Jericho, is called a "father" of Bethlehem. Mount Hor (Numbers 20:22-29) is near Petra in Edom. Edom was Horite territory.

Friday, March 18, 2016

Genesis on Sons and "The Son"

Alice C. Linsley

The marriage and ascendancy pattern of Abraham's ancestors involves rulers with two wives. This meant that the ruler usually had two first born sons. The first born son of the half-sister wife was the ruler's heir. So Isaac was Abraham's heir and ruled over Abraham's territory in Edom. Hebron (where Sarah lived) and Beersheba (where Keturah lived) are in Idumea (shown below). Abraham's territory extended between the settlements of his two wives and was entirely in Edom.

Edom or Idumea, land of red people

The first born son of the second wife, a patrilineal cousin, ruled in the territory of his maternal grandfather, after whom he was named. So Joktan (Yaqtan), Abraham's first born by his second wife Keturah, was named after Keturah's father Joktan the Elder. Joktan the Younger ruled as a regent or prime minister in his maternal grandfather's territory.

The first born son inherited his father’s earthly kingdom. Nahor, Abraham's older brother, inherited Terah's kingdom between Ur and Haran. Haran may have been the oldest of Terah's sons, but according to Genesis he died before his father. After Nahor inherited Terah's earthly kingdom, God led Abraham to leave his family and promised him a kingdom. This kingdom speaks of the Messianic kingdom.

Often there were other sons and to these the ruler gave gifts before his death and sent them away. These sent-away sons are often the great heroes of the Bible I that they receive divine grace to enable them in establishing territories of their own. Cain, Nimrod, Abraham, Joseph, Moses, David are examples.

The ruling sons often formed 3-clan confederations. Here are some of those confederations:

Cain Abel Seth (Gen. 4-5)
Ham Japeth Shem (Gen. 5-9)
Uz, Huz and Buz
Magog Og and Gog (Gen. 10 and Nu. 21:33)
Haran Nahor Abraham (Gen. 11-12)
Yishmael Yaqtan (Joktan) Yitzak (Gen. 16, 21, and 25)
Jeush Jalam Korah (Gen. 36: 4-18)
Jimnah, Jishvah and Jishvi (Gen. 46:17)
Korah Moses Aaron (Ex. and Nu.)
Dedan Tema Buz (Jeremiah 25)

Three-son confederations comprise a unit based on common ancestry. In Genesis, we often find that the third son either dies or is hidden in the text.  Abel, Haran, and Onan are examples of sons who die. Og is an example of third son hidden in the text. Another example is Joktan, Abraham's first-born son. He is related to the Jokanite tribes of Arabia. Hidden sons invite us to come closer. The Markan mystery is about the hidden Son. Jesus command his followers to keep silence about his identity as Messiah. He was recognized in Tyre, not in Jerusalem.

Hidden sons point to Jesus Christ, the Son hidden in the Father's bosom from before the ages. He inherits the Kingdom that is not of this earth. Genesis is the story of His ruler-priest ancestors.

Related reading:  Archaic Rulers, Ascendancy and the Foreshadowing of Christ; Abraham's Sons; The Marriage and Ascendancy Pattern of Abraham's People; Kushite Kings and the Kingdom of God; Why Jesus Visited Tyre

Wednesday, March 16, 2016

Index of Topics at Just Genesis

Just Genesis presents the latest research on the book of Genesis drawing on the disciplines of cultural anthropology, linguistics, molecular genealogy, and climate studies.

INDEX (Current as of 1 May 2016)

Cain's Murder of Abel
Life is in the Blood
Were Cain and Abel Twins?
Lenten Meditation of Cain and Abel

Who Was Abraham?
Abraham's Habiru Ancestors
Abraham and the Hittites
Abraham's Complaint
The Calling of Abraham
Abraham's Audience with Pharaoh
Abraham's Maternal Line
Challenge to Shaye Cohen's Portrayal of Abraham
Was Abraham the First Jew?
Where Abraham Spent His Old Age
Abraham's Two Concubines
Keturah: Wife or Concubine?
Abraham's Sons
Abraham's Nephews and Niece
Abraham's Ancestors Came Out of Africa
The Bosom of Abraham
Abraham and Circumcision
Was Abraham a Pagan?
Was Abraham a Liar?
Abraham and Moses: Different Origins of Israel?
Abraham and Job: Horite Rulers
Abraham and Moses as Types of Christ
Abraham's Horite Mother
The Substance of Abraham's Faith
Abraham's Saharan Ancestors
Abraham on Mount Moriah
Did Abraham Believe Isaac to be Messiah?
What Color Was Abraham?
Busting Myths Concerning Abraham

Adam and Eve
Adam Was a Red Man
Adam According to Mesopotamian Tradition
Dr. John Walton on the Historicity of Adam
Blaming Original Sin on Adam
Dating Adam: Paul H. Sheely Proposes a Solution
Adam and Eve: The "Blood" and the "Birther"
Another False Claim About Adam and Eve
Are Adam and Eve Real?
Answers to Students' Questions About Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve: Archetypal First Ancestors
Adam and Enoch: Archetype and Ancestor
Objections to the Fundamentalist Reading of Genesis 1-5
The Real Adam
Elder Joseph on Adam and Eve
Eve's Sin
The First Historical Persons in Genesis
The Biblical Meaning of Eve

African Context of Genesis
The Mighty Men of Old
Abraham's Ancestors Came Out of Africa
God's African Ancestors
The Origin of Castes
Africa is Archaeologically Rich
Qesem Cave Finds in Perspective
Conversation with Hausa Muslim
Conversation About Igbo Origins
An African Reflects on Biblical Names
Genesis and African Bishops
African Naming Practices

The Dedanites
Qesem Cave Finds in Perspective
Alignment of Oldest Mosques
Kushite and Horite Rulers Linked
Peleg: Time of Division
Using Arab Math to Uncover the Authors of the Torah

Afro-Asiatic Metalworkers
The Afro-Asiatic Dominion
The Spread of the Afro-Asiatic Worldview
Was Genghis Khan the Last Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Builder?
Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Building
Decline of the Afro-Asiatic Rulers
Nimrod: Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Builder
Afro-Asiatic Rulers and the Celestial Archetype
Akkadian Dictionary Finished
The Proto-Elamite Script

The Annu/Ainu of On (Iunu)
Horned Altars and Horned Sacred Vessels
Solving the Ainu Mystery
Abraham's Ainu Ancestors
The Nile-Japan Ainu Connection
A Kindling of Ancient Memory
Annu/Ainu a "First People"
Making Sense of Genesis 10
From the Nile to the Philippines: Tracing the Gurjars

Alice C. Linsley
When is the Evidence Sufficient?
Address to the International Catholic Congress of  Anglicans
Zaji Magazine Interview with Alice C. Linsley
Some Jewish Women Have Noticed My Research
Reactions to My Genesis Research
Stepping into the Stream: Road to Emmaus Interview with Alice C. Linsley
Orthodox Radio of Canada Interview with Alice C. Linsley
Illumined Heart Podcast (Ancient Faith Radio)
From Canterbury to Constantinople, Frank Lockwood Interview with Alice C. Linsley
My Method
Genesis Has Strengthened My Faith
Analysis of the Genesis 4 and 5 King Lists
Telling My Story, Part 1
Telling My Story, Part 3
Ancestors and Archetypes
Adam and Enoch as Archetype and Ancestor
The Father of Cain and Seth
Were Abraham's Ancestors Rulers or Refugees?
Oholibamah: Ancestor and Archetype of Mary
Horus: King of the Universe
The Eyes of Horus Speak of Jesus
Adam and Eve as Archetypes
The Celestial Archetype
Nilotic-Kushitic Celestial Archetypes
Questions Asked by Primitive Man

The Doctrine of Creation and the Doctrine of the Church (Richard Hooker)
The Priesthood in England - Part 1
The Priesthood in England - Part 2
The Priesthood in England - Part 3
The Priesthood in England - Conclusion
Some Thoughts of Women Priests
TEC: The formless and void
Anglicanism and Spiritualism
Are Anglican Bishops Schismatic?
The Crisis of Authority in Anglicanism
Modernist-Traditionalist Divide in Anglicanism
Impressions of the New American Anglicanism
Growing Consensus that Women's Ordination Must Be Addressed
Anglicanism on the Doctrine of Creation
N.T. Wright Should Admit His Own Church's Failing

Ram Symbolism in the Ancient World
Abraham's Camels
Why Cows Were Sacred in the Ancient World
Noah's Birds
Serpent Symbolism
The Bull's Head in Antiquity
The Ostrich in Biblical Symbolism
Dogs in the Bible
Of Lions and Downton Abbey

Discrepancies are Evidence of Authenticity
The Purpose of the Bible
Questions High Schoolers Ask About Genesis
Answers to High Schoolers' Questions about God
Answers to High Schoolers' Questions About Adam and Eve
Answers to High Schoolers' Questions About the Flood
Answers to High Schoolers' Questions About the Earth
Gender and the Bible
Why Prejudice Against a Scientific Approach to the Bible?

Archaic Humans
Many Groups of Archaic Humans
1.5 Million Year Human Footprint
The Dispersal of Archaic Humans
Was Lucy Human?
Facts about Human Origins
Humans Originated in Africa
Swimming and Diving Among Archaic Peoples
The Beginnings of Spoken Language
The High Places
Religion of the Archaic Rulers
Some Marks of Prehistoric Religion
Swimming and Diving: Activities of Archaic Communities
Sheep Cotes as Sacred Spaces
Threshing Floors and Solar Symbols
Symbols of Archaic Rock Shelters

El Castillo Rock Art in Perspective
3000 BC Rock Art in Sudan
The Scarlet Cord: A Poem and a Painting

Astronomy and Physics
The Pyramids of Bosnia
Jesuit Astronomer on the Higgs Boson
Higgs Boson: Expected End in Particle Physics
The Celestial Dance Observed by the Magi
A Series Worth Mention
The Bethlehem Star
The Sun and Moon in Genesis
Two Powers in Heaven
Eliade Was Right About Celestial Archetypes
Afro-Asiatic Rulers and the Celestial Archetype
Ancient African Astronomers

Atheist Students Think that Science is on Their Side
The Atheist's Fallacious Argument

Authorship (Genesis)
The Documentary Hypothesis Not Compatible with Current Research
Professor James Barr on Genesis
Who Wrote Genesis?
Is Mosaic Authorship Necessary?
The Possibility of Davidic Authorship
How Did Genesis Come to Be?

New Fragment Reveals More About Humbaba

The Barren and Grieving Rejoice
The Nature of Barrenness in the Hebrew Bible by Joel Baden

David's Royal City
Bethlehem in the Time of Abraham
The Ark Rested in Bethlehem
Bethlehem: A Horite Settlement
4000 Year Bethlehem Town
Horite Expectation and the Star of Bethlehem
The Virgin Birth and the Manger Too!
Who Were the Horites?
The Bethlehem Star
The Celestial Dance Observed by the Magi
The Holy One Hidden and Revealed

Bible and History
Episode 1: History Channel Scores a C
Episode 2: Horite Prophets and Kings
Episode 3: The Messiah appears!
Episode 4: The King is Revealed
Success of Bible Series Hard to Assess
Scientific Verification of the Genesis 10 Dispersion
Genesis on the Ancient Kingdom Builders
The Afro-Asiatic Dominion

Biblical Anthropology
INDEX of Topics on Biblical Anthropology
Genesis in Anthropological Perspective
Something Older
Biblical Anthropology and Antecedents
When is the Evidence Sufficient?
Seligman's Legacy
Cultural Context and the Bible
The Murky Waters of Insanity
Is Biblical Anthropology an Oxymoron?
What Does a Biblical Anthropologist Do?
Between Biblical Literalism and Biblical Illiteracy
Biblical Anthropology is Scientific Study of the Bible
The Bible and Anthropological Investigation
The Sacred Center in Biblical Theology
A Blog Dedicated to Biblical Anthropology
Genesis Through the Lens of Anthropology
Biblical Anthropology: Image of God or Imaging God?
Race and the Bible
The Bible and the Question of Race
Jacques Derrida and Biblical Anthropology
Ignoring Anthropologically Significant Data

Biblical Peoples, Castes and Clans
Royal Names in Genesis
Abusing Biblical Lists
Ruler-Priests: A cult or caste?
Petra Reflects Horite Belief
The Mighty Men of Old
The Jebusites: Extant Biblical People
Who Were the Horites?
Who Were the Kushites?
The Habiru/Hapiru
Extant Biblical Tribes and Clans
Joseph of Ar-Mathea: Fact and Fiction

Biblical Worldview
The Ruach of God
Afro-Asiatic Symbols that Speak of God
Afro-Asiatic Religious Life
The Importance of Binary Distinctions
Genesis and Jacques Derrida
The Cosmology of Abraham's People
Tracing the Scarlet Cord
African Religion Predates Hinduism
Afro-Asiatic vs Aryan Religion: The Horse as Example
Who Were the Hapiru?

Binary Structure/Binary Distinctions/Binary Worldview
Binary Sets and Gender Distinctions
The Importance of Binary Distinctions
The Binary Aspect of the Biblical Worldview
Does the Binary Feature Signal Greater Complexity?
Today's Savage Mind
Binary Sets in the Ancient World
Blood and Binary Distinctions
Circumcision and Binary Distinctions
Binary Distinctions and Kenosis
The Theme of Hidden Sons
The Biblical Theme of Two Sons
Time and Eternity
A Conversation About Binary Distinctions

Noah's Birds
Sea Birds Use Sense of Smell to Navigate
The Chiastic Center of Ecclesiasticus

Blood Symbolism/Sacrifice
Blood Guilt and Christ's Priesthood
Blood and Gender Distinctions
Water and Blood
Life is in the Blood
What Constitutes Being?
Blood and Binary Distinctions
Mining Blood
The Pleromic Blood and Gnosticism
The Blood of Jesus
God as Male Priest

Book Reviews
John Coats on Genesis
Leon Kass on Genesis
Patrick Henry Reardon on Genesis
John Walton's Lost World of Genesis One
Narby's Cosmic Serpent
Terry Mortenson's Coming to Grips With Genesis

Bulls and Bovine Symbolism
The Bull's Head in Antiquity
The Aleph as Ox Head
Israel Museum Reopens

God's Mercy and Cain's Demise
The Descendants of Cain and Seth
The Kingdoms of Cain and Seth
From Cain to Jesus Christ
Who Did Cain Marry?
Cain's Father
Cain as Ruler
Genesis 4 and 5 King Lists
Mohammed and the Descendants of Cain
Ancient Symbols of Authority Linked to Cain
Cain's Princess Bride

The Peoples of Canaan
The Urheimat of the Canaanite Y
The Clans of Ar
The Mighty Men of Old
Canaanite Origins of the Alphabet
Ancient Canaanite Inscriptions
Abraham's Canaanite Mother

Abraham's Camels

Adam's Bad Dream
On the Lighter Side
Noah's Dog
Life on the Ark

The Origin of Castes
Evidence of Castes in the Book of Ruth

Why Cows Were Sacred in the Ancient World
Nilotic Cattle Herders
Twin Pyramids and Sphinx in Zinder
A Tent for the Sun

Christ in Genesis
"Easter" Eggs in Antiquity
The Christ in Nilotic Mythology
The Risen Christ in Genesis
Tracing the Scarlet Cord
One Greater Than Moses
Did Abraham Believe Isaac to be the Messiah?
Abraham and Moses Prefigure Christ
In the Beginning... was Love
The Holy One Hidden and Revealed

The Origins of Christianity, Part 1
Christian Faith Emerges from the Faith of Abraham
Witnesses to the Truth of Christianity
"Easter" Eggs in Antiquity

Mary, the Mound and the Bread of Life
Christmas Message From Genesis
Genesis and the True Meaning of Christmas
The Virgin Birth and the Manger Too!
Christians Are Christmas People
Egypt in the Christmas Narrative

Church Fathers
Recap of What We've Learned from St. Basil
St. Augustine on Divine Illumination
St. John Chrysostom on Lamech
St. John Chrysostom on Lamech's Speech
Clement of Alexandria on Biblical Concealment
St. Augustine on Genesis
Augustine on Days of Creation
Jerome's Extraordinary Insights on Genesis

Climate Studies and the Book of Genesis
Genesis and Climate Change
When the Sahara Was Wet
Climate Cycles and Noah's Flood

St Basil's Sermons on the Days of Creation (The Hexaemeron)
St. Basil the Great
In the Beginning God
God Said "Let There be Light."
On Germination
On Luminous Bodies
On Moving Creatures
The Creation of Fowl and Water Creatures
On the Creation of Terrestrial Animals

The Origins of Circumcision
Circumcision Debated
Circumcision and Binary Distinctions
Abraham and Circumcision
Zipporah's Flint Knife

Climate Change
Kansas Science Bill Faces Defeat
Rick Pott's Variability Hypothesis has Biblical support
Antarctica Once Had Baobab Trees
Climate Change and Genesis
Decline of the Afro-Asiatic Dominion
Lower Solar Irradiance, Higher Atmospheric Temps?
Climate Cycles and Noah's Flood

Commentators on Genesis
List of Commentaries on Genesis
Jacob Böehme on Genesis

The Danger of Concordism
Genesis: On Gaps and Overlaps
Gap Theory or Gap Fact?
The Creation Museum
This Gets My Blood Pressure Up!

Cosmology of Abraham's People
Christ's Sign in Creation
Cosmology and Ethics
The Importance of Binary Distinctions
Reality is Cross Shaped
Hierarchy in Creation: The Biblical View

Cousin Bride's Naming Prerogative
Lamech Segment Analysis
The Cousin Bride's Naming Prerogative
Some 'Cousin' Brides Were Nieces
Cousin Brides and Their Ruler Sons
Speiser and Deuteronomy 21:16
Lot's Daughters

Creationism (Young Earth)
YEC Dogma is NOT Biblical
Bishop Ussher Goofed
False Assumption #1 of YEC
False Assumption #2 of YEC
False Assumption #3 of YEC
False Assumption #4 of YEC
False Assumption #5 of YEC
The Age of the Earth
The Battle Over Genesis
Science Teachers and Creationism
Are Science and Scripture at Odds?
This Gets My Blood Pressure Up!
Between Biblical Literalism and Biblical Illiteracy
Stephen M. Barr on Young Earth Creationism
The Creation Museum

Creationism (Old Earth)
The Age of the Earth and the Evidence of Human Occupation
Conversation on Creationism About False Choices
Evidence of an Old Earth - Part 1
Evidence of an Old Earth - Part 2
Biblical Evidence of an Old Earth
Gap Theory or Gap Fact?
Humans Originated in Africa
1.5 Million Human Footprints in Kenya
Scientific Verification of the Genesis 10 Dispersion
Facts about Human Origins
Evangelicals Surrender Too Much Ground to Darwin
Q and A on Creation and Evolution
370 Million Fish Found
African Projectiles 90,000 Years Old
77,000 Year Old Mattresses
Rightly Reading Genesis 1-3
What Genesis Tells Us About Creation
Genesis and Genetics
The Making of Man
Theories of Creation: An Overview

Creation: Theistic; Darwinian
Concerns About BioLogos
Darwin: Fact and Fiction
Dmanisi Finds Call for Radical Rethink of Human Speciation
Questioning the Common Ancestry Hypothesis
Thomas Nagel: Neo-Darwinian Conception is False
The Evolution of Darwinian Evolution
Was Lucy Human?
Has Science Buried God?
Have Humans Outgrown Natural Selection?
Christians Debate Genesis and Evolution
Biblical Anthropologists Discuss Darwin
The Slatest Lambasts Texas "Creationism"

Creation Stories
The Themes of Genesis 1-3
The Genesis Creation Stories
What is Meant by the Term "Kinds" in Genesis?
Literalists in Good Standing?
Rightly Reading Genesis 1-3
Genesis 1 Sets the Scene
Genesis: Just a Story for Ancient Peoples?
Andrew Parker's Genesis Enigma

The Sacred Center in Biblical Theology
Christ's Sign in Creation
Blood and Crosses
Three Specimens to Ponder
Crosses in Astro-Sidereal Theology

C.S. Lewis
C.S. Lewis on Genesis
C.S. Lewis on Evolution
Priestesses in the Church?
C.S. Lewis on the Resurrection

Calculating the Dates of the Patriarchs
Who Wrote Genesis?
Africa in the Days of Noah
Ancient Earthquakes

The Ethnicity of David and Abraham
The Jerusalem that David Knew
Elah Fortress

Days of Creation
Answers to High Schoolers' Questions About the Age of the Earth
Days of Creation: Literal or Figurative?
The Age of the Earth

Deified Sons/Deified Rulers
Enoch: Angelic Being or Deified Ruler?
Why Does Genesis Speak of Gods?
Deified Rulers and the Resurrection
Deified Sons
Potiphar, Son of Horus

Derrida, Jacques
Something Older
Genesis and Jacques Derrida
Levi-Strauss and Derrida on Binary Oppositions

Genesis Through the Lens of the Deuteronomist

The Problem With Dispensationalism
God Has Made Progress With Us
Dispensationalism and the Three Witnesses

Genesis and Molecular Genealogy
Hunter-Gatherer Study Inconclusive
Tut's Father Married His Cousin
Ethiopian DNA Study Ignores Significant Data
A Kindling of Ancient Memory
Abraham was a Descendant of Shem and Ham
Migrations Out of Africa
Denisovan Populations

Documentary Hypothesis
The Documentary Hypothesis
Documents, Sources and God's Purpose
Should Genesis Be Taught in Public Schools?

Dreams and Visions
The Dragon and the Beast of Revelation
Dreams in Genesis

Drunken Fathers
Two Passovers and Two Drunken Fathers
Lot's Daughters

Dung Beetle
The Dung Beetle and Celestial Lights
Of Dung Beetles and Red Herrings

Early Bronze Age Settlements
The High Places
The Fertile Crescent and the Cradle of Civilization
Why Nekhen is Anthropologically Significant
Hazor's Destruction: Another Theory
Before the Mummies: The Saharan Antecedents of the Pharaohs

Eastern Orthodoxy
The Orthodox Study Bible
An Eastern Orthodox Approach to Genesis?
The Blessing of Waters

Who was Eber?
Who were the Habiru?

The Paradise of Ancient Memory
The Search for Eden
Why Jesus Visited Tyre
What Happened in the Garden?
What Paradise Must Have Been
The Garden of Eden: Myth or Real?
Eden: A Well-Watered Region
The Serpent of Eden

Edenic Promise (Gen. 3:15)
God's Word Never Fails

Edo, Edom, Idumea
Petra Reflects Horite Belief
The Edomites and the Color Red

Egypt and Israel by W.M. Flinders Petrie
Ancient Egyptian Lexicon
A Visit to King Tut's Seattle Exhibit
Tut's Father Married his Cousin
Egypt in the Book of Genesis
Ancient Egyptians Were Seafaring
Ritual Sex and Ancient Egyptian Priests
Medical Care in Ancient Egypt
The World's Oldest Book Found in Egypt
Egypt in the Christmas Narrative
Horus, King of the Universe
Plato's Debt to Ancient Egypt

Eliezer of Damascus
Who Was Eliezar of Damascus?
Abraham's Two Concubines

Enoch: Angelic Being or Deified Ruler?
Is Enoch a Royal Title?
Teraphim: Idols or Ancestor Figurines?
Are the Names Enoch and Enosh Equivalent?
Is the Land of Nod the Region of Nok?

Esau in Yoruba Tradition
Two Named Esau

Yes, Virginia, There is a Kingdom
The Kingdom of God in Genesis
Gog and Magog
Genesis and the Eucharist
The Water, the Blood and the Spirit

Ethics in Genesis
Cosmology and Ethics
Such a God as This
Leon Kass on Genesis

The Fall
Humanity's Fallen Existence
Original Sin or Ancestral Sin?
The Extent of the Fall
The Genesis Kings and the Fall

Feminist Interpretations
Are Feminist Correct About the Church?
Sit Down Before You Read This Essay on "Women's Status in the Bible"
Are Women More Sensitive to Bias?
The Question of Patriarchy
The Paradox of Feminism
The Question of Patriarchy
The Bible as the Woman's Story

Atrahasis and Noah: Similarities and Differences
Noah's Flood: Where and When?
How Big was Noah's Flood?
Analysis of the Flood Story
Noah's Flood: Forces Beyond Our Control
Africa in the days of Noah
Climate Cycles and Noah's Flood
Noah's Ark: Looking in the Right Place
Noah's Ark
Noah's Birds
Noah and the Black Sea Theory
Dark Sky and Howling Wind
Replica (Almost) of Noah's Ark
Kentucky to Get Noah's Ark Theme Park

Is Scientific Dating of Fossils Reliable?
Earth's First Fossils Neither Vegetation nor Animal
Does the Binary Feature Signal Greater Complexity?

God as Male Priest
Gender Reversal and Sacred Mystery

In the Beginning God Created
Common Questions About Genesis
Merisms in Genesis
The Science Guy Reveals His Ignorance
A Scientific Timeline of Genesis
Why Genesis Matters
The Battle Over Genesis
John Walton's Lost World of Genesis One
The Nilotic Substrata of Genesis 1
Genesis One: A Mistranslation?
Parsing Genesis 1:1-2
A Creature After God's Kind
Heaven or Heavens: Does It Matter?
Reading the First Few Chapters of the Bible

Haplogroups of Interest to Biblical Anthropologists
Genetic Risks in Cousin Marriage
Genetic Adam Never Knew Genetic Eve
Genesis and Molecular Genealogy
DNA Confirms Mixed Ancestry of Jews
Mitochondrial Eve
Genesis and Genetics

Afar Rift Provides Valuable Information
Phil Jones on Burnet's Sacred Theology of the Earth
Psalm 104:8 and Flood Geology

GLOSSARY (Anthropological Terms)

God's Motive For Creation
Calvin on God's Motive for Creation
Answers to Questions About God

Gog and Magog
Gog and Magog in Myth and Literature
Connecting Gog, Magog and Og to Abraham

The Gold of Ophir
Kushite Gold

Government and Law
Evidence for Ancient Government and Law in Genesis
The Law of Te-hut
Ancient Law Codes
Judging Between Two Brothers

The Conversion of Hagar
Hagar's Journeys
Abraham's Two Concubines

The Lines of Ham and Shem Intermarried
The Curse of Ham Falls Also on Shem
Rabbinic Disparaging of the Hamites/Kushites
The God of Shem is the God of Ham

Locating Biblical Ur

Heaven or Heavens: Does it Matter?
Cosmology and Ethics

Is Hebrew an African Language?

Avoiding Heresy
The Importance of Binary Distinctions
Gene Robinson on the Bible
Why the Episcopal Church Leadership Hates the Nigerians

Hidden Sons
The Theme of Hidden Sons
The Holy One Hidden and Revealed

Abraham and the Hittites
Hittite Religion

Holy Tradition
What is Holy Tradition?
Ideologies Opposed to Holy Tradition
Women Priests
Received Tradition vs Special Revelation
The Stream of Holy Tradition
We're in Big Trouble

Holy Week
Maundy Thursday: The Deceiving Worm
Good Friday: The Lamb is Bound
Why is Good Friday Good?
Holy Saturday: Christ Breaks the Seal
St. John Chrysostom's Pascua Homily
C.S. Lewis on the Resurrection
The Empty Tomb
Christ's Resurrection in Genesis

Habiru, Hapiru, 'Apiru, or Hebrew?
Frank Moore Cross:  Israel's God is the God of the Horites
Ruler-Priests: A cult or a caste?
Lamech's Story and Horite Kinship
The Myth of Israel's Dual Origins
Who Were the Horites?
Samuel's Horite Family
Horite Territory
Abraham and Job: Horite Rulers
Architecture Links Nabateans and Horites
Kushite and Horite Rulers Linked
Missionary Horite Priests
Horite Confederation of Sheba, Jebu and Joktan
Horite Priests and the Hapiru
Some Jews and Arabs Have Horite Blood
The Kenite-Horite Connection
Origins of the Word "Horite"

7000 BC Horse Burial Linked to Sheba
A Tent for the Sun
Petra Reflects Horite Belief
Afro-Asiatic vs Aryan Religion: the Horse as Example

Horus as Messianic archetype
Seal Connects Hezekiah with Horite Beliefs
Who is Jesus?
The Re-Horus-Hathor Narrative
Jesus and the Horus Narrative
The Eyes of Horus Speak of Jesus
Jesus Christ of Two Crowns
The Double Crown of Horus
Horus, King of the Universe
Potiphar, Son of Horus
Jesus: From Lamb to Ram
Who Were the Horites?
Royal Babies
The Horite Ancestry of Jesus Christ;
Samuel's Horite Family
Moses' Horite Family
The Horite Marriage and Ascendancy Pattern

Human Origins
A Flawed Paradigm
Is Scientific Dating of Fossils Reliable?
Genesis on Human Origins
The Making of Man
Denisovan Finds Create a Stir
Overview of Human Origins
Genesis: Is It Really About Human Origins?
Q and A on Creation vs Evolution
Genesis and Genetics

Image of God (Imago Dei)
Made in the Image of the King
Fr Hopko on the Image and Likeness of God
Evolution and Imago Dei by Sy Garte

Isaac (Yitzak)
Isaac's Wealth
Isaac's Second Marriage
Isaac's Three Sons
Isaac's Horite Descendants
Patrick Reardon on the Binding of Isaac
Did Abraham Believe Isaac to Be Messiah?
Some Jews and Arabs Have Horite Blood

Ishmael was NOT Abraham's Firstborn Son
Sent-Away Sons

A Muslim Calls on the God of Abraham
Mohammed and the Descendants of Cain
The Dedanites and Old Arabic
The Alignment of the Oldest Mosques

Palestine and Israel. Historical Notes by W.M. Flinders Petrie [1853-1942]
Abraham and Moses: Different Origins of Israel?
The Myth of Israel's Dual Origins
Abraham and Moses Prefigure Jesus Christ
Israel's God is the God of the Horites
Genesis and Israel's Land Claim
Rabbi Simon Altaf on the Israelites

Jacob's Journeys
Jacob Leaves Beersheba
Jacob's Blood and Betrayal
Why Rachel Didn't Trust Laban
Teraphim: Idols or Ancestor Figurines?

Holy Theophany Orthodox Church in Japan
The Nile-Japan Ainu Connection

The Jebusites Unveiled
The Jebu, Sheba, Joktan Confederation
The Priestly Order of Melchizedek

Jesus Christ (Yeshua, Yashuah)
The Son of God
Jesus Fulfills the Edenic Promise
From Cain to Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ in Genesis
The Horite Ancestry of Jesus Christ
Tracing Christ's Kushite Ancestors
Did Jesus Have a Wife?
The Pure One
The MSNBC Spin on Jesus
The Black Messiah
The Christ in Nilotic Mythology
The King is Risen
Jesus: From Lamb to Ram
God With Us
One Greater Than Moses
Jesus Christ's Resurrection in Genesis
Gender Reversal and Sacred Mystery
Jesus Christ of Two Crowns
Christ as Alpha and Omega

John, the Forerunner
Jesus' Baptism by John at Nimrah
The Testimony of Blessed John, Forerunner

Joktan (Yaqtan)
Abraham's First-born Son
Evidence that Yaqtan was Abraham's firstborn Son
Confederation of Sheba, Jebu and Joktan
Why Jesus Visited Tyre

Joseph and Judah as Instruments of Deliverance
The Enigma of Joseph
Such a God as This
Elie Wiesel on Joseph
Potiphar, Son of Horus

The Myth of Israel's Dual Origins
Are Rabbinic Interpretations of the Bible Accurate?
Messianic Jews and the Antecedents of Judaism
Some Jews and Arabs Have Common Horite Ancestry
The Talmud vs The Doctrine of the Lord

Just Genesis
JUST GENESIS: Seven Year Anniversary
Why a Blog About Genesis?
Where to Begin Processing Material at JUST GENESIS
Thoughts on Blogging
The Apostle Paul: Rules for Blogging

Abraham's Nephews and Nieces
Kemuel, Father of Aram the Younger

The Kenite-Horite Connection
Mohammed and the Kenites
Documents, Sources and God's Purpose

Keturah: Wife or Concubine
Women at a Well
Speiser Recognized the Two-Wife Pattern

Kingdom Builders
Dispersion of the Ruler-Priests
The Mighty Men of Old
Genesis on the Ancient Kingdom Builders
Religion of the Archaic Rulers

Kingdom of God
The Kingdom of God in Genesis
Yes, Georgia, There is a Kingdom
Does the Kingdom Have a Caste System?

The Horite Marriage and Ascendancy Pattern
A Chief Must Have More Than One Wife
The Pattern of Two Wives
What is Kinship?
Answers to Recent Questions
Speiser Recognized the Two-Wife Pattern
Analysis of the Genesis 4 and 5 King Lists
Lamech Segment Analysis
The Cousin Bride's Naming Prerogative
Abraham's First-born Son
The Genesis King Lists

Kushites (Cushites)
Who Were the Kushites?
Kushite Shrines
Monuments of the Ancient Kushites
Kushites in Mindanao
Kushite Gold
Kushite Diversity and Unity
The Kushite-Kushan Connection
The Kushite Marriage Pattern Drove Kushite Expansion
Kushite Kings and the Kingdom of God
Morkot's Book Might Have Been Stronger
Were the Natufians Kushites?
Moses' Kushite Wife
Kushite Wives
The Migration of Abraham's Kushite Ancestors
DNA Confirms Kushite Migration

Why Rachel Didn't Trust Laban

Analysis of the Genesis 4 and 5 King Lists
John Chrysostom's Interpretation of Lamech's Speech
Lamech Segment Analysis
Lamech's Story and Horite Kinship
Methuselah's Wife (The daughter of Lamech the Elder)
Life Spans of Lamech and Methuselah

Why Rachel Didn't Trust Laban

Levarite Marriage Law
Mother's House and Father's House
Tamar and the Theme of Two Sons

The Myth of Lilith

The Nile and Tigris Linguistically Connected
Phoneme Study Pinpoints Origin of Modern Languages
The Beginnings of Spoken Language
Navajo and Ket are Cognate Languages
Ket-Navajo Connection is Old News
Hausa and Ancient Egyptian
The Afro-Asiatic Dominion

Lot's Story
Lot's Daughters
Abraham's Intercession for Lot

Mary, Theotokos
The Virgin Mary's Ancestry
The Daughters of Priests
The Bible as Woman's Story
Mary, the Mound, and the Bread of Life
God's Word Never Fails
Mary Hated Even in Her Repose
Freud and the Virgin Mary

Nubians Used Antibiotics
Ebers Papyrus
Neolithic Medical Care
Dental Health of Ancient Sudanese
Archaic Humans Used Plants Medicinally

Melchizedek: His Lineage
The Priestly Order of Melchizedek
The Jebusites Unveiled

Methuselah's Age
Methuselah's Wife
St. Jerome on Methuselah
The Life Spans of Methuselah and Lamech

Migration and Human Populations
Was Earth Repopulated After Noah's Flood?
Crete Finds Confirm Migration Out of Africa
Migration of Abraham's Kushite Ancestors
Noah's Sons and Their Descendants
DNA Confirms Kushite Migration

Monastic Views on Genesis
St Anthony the Great on Creation
Abuna Elia Reflects on Genesis
St Jerome on Genesis
Elder Joseph on Adam and Eve
St Ephrem on Creation
Fr Seraphim Rose on Genesis

Why Nekhen is Anthropologically significant
Was the Giza Sphinx a Recumbent Lion?
Orientations of Nilo-Saharan Monuments
Chisel from Herod's Foundation Wall

Moses' Wives and Brothers
Moses' Two Wives
Moses and Abraham Prefigure Christ
One Greater Than Moses
Moses and Abraham: Different Origins of Israel?

Sacred Mountains
Mount Moriah
Horite Territory
Mount Mary and the Origins of Life
Peaks and Valleys
The High Places

Methuselah's Wife
Analysis of the Genesis 4 and 5 King Lists

Is Nehesi the Biblical Name Nahor?
Nahor's Sons
Nahor and His Descendants

Were the Natufians Kushites?

Nephilim: Angels or Ancestors?
UFOs in Genesis?

Nilotic Religion
Nilotic vs Aryan Religion: The Horse as Example
The Christ in Nilotic Mythology
Nilotic-Kushitic Celestial Archetypes
African Religion Predates Hinduism
The Saharan Origin of Pharaonic Egypt
The Ornaments and Rites of Nubia

As in the days of Noah
Was Noah Mesopotamian or Proto-Saharan?
Noah's Homeland
Noah's Flood: Where and When?
Saving Noah
Was Earth Repopulated After Noah's Flood?
Noah's Descendants
Noah's Sons and Their Descendants
Noah's Birds
Noah's Dog
Forty Days and Forty Nights
Noah: The Hollywood Version

Nimrod: Afro-Asiatic Kingdon Builder
Nimrod: A Tall Tale
Before Alexander the Great There was Nimrod
Was Genghis Khan the Last Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Builder?

Number Symbolism
Number Symbolism in the Bible
Afro-Arabian Number System
Number Symbolism in Revelation
The Nine Divine Utterances
Methuselah's Real Age
Forty Days and Forty Nights

The Nubian Context of YHWH
Nubian Captives
Huge Nubian City
Terah's Nubian Ancestors
Monuments of the Ancient Kushites

Order of Creation
Hierarchy in Creation: The Biblical View
Plato and Intelligent Design
Reality is Cross-Shaped
Thomas Hobbes on Orders of Creation

The Question of Patriarchy
The Paradox of Feminism

Peleg: Time of Division
Noah's Sons and Their Descendants
Why Rachel Didn't Trust Laban

A Reader Asks about Polygenesis
"First People" at Genetic Center

Polygyny (multiple wives)
Polygyny Among Rulers of Abraham's People
Teraphim: Idols or Ancestor Figurines?
Polygyny: Silent Social Challenge

Blood Guilt and Christ's Priesthood
What is a Priest?
Luther Was Wrong About the Priesthood
More Thoughts on the Priesthood
Rethinking "Biblical Equality"
Why Women Were Never Priests
What's Lost When Women Serve as Priests?
Some Thoughts on Women Priests
The Messianic Priesthood of Jesus
The Royal Priest Lines of Matthew
The Priesthood and Genesis
The Priesthood as Heavenly Ordinance
The Horite Priesthood
Males as Spiritual Leaders: Two Patterns
Shamanic Practice and the Priesthood
What is a Presbyter?
Ideologies Opposed to Holy Tradition
What is Holy Tradition?
The Spread of the Afro-Asiatic Worldview
The Priestly Divisions
Genesis and the Eucharist
Passing Conversation with Priestess Kaeton

The Prophetess Anna
God With Us
God's Word Never Fails
Prophecy in Historical Perspective

Pyramids and Mounds Galore!
Newly Discovered Pyramid Predates Noah
The Pyramids of Bosnia
17 Undiscovered Pyramids Seen from Space
Twin Pyramids and Sphinx in Zinder
More Pyramids in Sudan
Kushan Pyramids in China

Rabbis on Genesis
Rabbi Hirsch on 'The Nations'
Rabbi Kaduri
Rabbi (St.) Paul on Genesis

Seligman's Legacy
The Bible and the Question of Race
About Race, Human Populations, and the Purpose of Mankind

Why Rachel Didn't Trust Laban
Women at a Well
Teraphim: Idols or Ancestor Figurines?
Grasping at Mandrakes

The King is Risen
Christ's Resurrection in Genesis
Of Dung Beetles and Red Herrings
Resurrection as Mirrored Reality
Genesis and the True Meaning of Christmas
Matthew's Testimony Concerning the Empty Tomb
Righteous Rulers and the Resurrection

Swelling of Sun and River Speaks of God

Rulers/Ruling Priests
Women Rulers in Ancient Israel
Ruler-Priests and the Biblical Worldview
Who Were the Horites?
Royal Names in Genesis
Female Shamans, Not Women Priests

Sarah's Story
Sarah's People
Sarah's Laughter

Sacred Center (Biblical Theology)
The Sacred Center in Biblical Theology
Analysis of the Flood Story
Sons Who Stayed Home
Sent-Away Sons

Science and Religion
Support the ASA and CWIS
The Problem with Gould's NOMA
Jesuit Astronomer on Science and Religion

Serpent Symbolism
Answers to Questions About the Serpent in Genesis
The Cosmic Serpent Exposed
The Amorites and Serpent Veneration
The Dragon and the Beast of Revelation
What Happened in the Garden?
The Serpent from Africa to India
The Serpent of Eden

Seth (Set)
The Ruler Seth
The Kingdoms of Cain and Seth
The Descendants of Cain and Seth
Analysis of the Genesis 4 and 5 King List
Seth's First-born Son
Symbols of Authority Linked to Seth and Cain
Using Animal Totems to Trace Ancestry

Some Thoughts on Sex
More Questions About Sex
Genesis on Homosex: Beyond Sodom

7000 BC Horse Burial Linked to Sheba
Sheba and East African Settlements Linked
The Nigerian Boundary of the Jebu-Sheba-Joktan Confederation

Lines of Ham and Shem Intermarried
The God of Shem is the God of Ham

Sheol and the Second Death

Shrines and Temples
Monuments of the Ancient Kushites
The Shrine City of Nekhen
Prehistoric Obelisk Found in Judah
Joseph and the Temple at Heliopolis
The Destruction of Hazor: Another Theory
Wells and Brides
Daughters of Priests
Women at Wells
Horite Temples
Orientations of Nilo-Saharan Monuments

17 Undiscovered Pyramids Seen from Space
3000 B.C. Rock Carvings in Sudan
Twin Pyramids and Sphinx in Zinder
Nilo-Saharan and Saharo-Nubian Populations

Sun/Solar Imagery
The Brentford Shard: Chi Rho or Solar Symbol?
A Tent for the Sun
Solar Imagery of the Proto-Gospel
The Sun and Moon in Genesis
Sun Symbolism and Blood Guilt
African Religion Predates Hinduism
The Bull Head in Antiquity
Sun and a Tree of Life Among Magyar

The Biblical Theme of Two Sons
Daughters of Priests
The Religion of Tamar of Timna

The Tool Makers of Kathu
500,000 Year Engraved Shell
32,000 Year Old Flour Processing Plant
77,000 Year Old Mattress
70,000 Year Old Python Stone
80,000 Year Old Mining Operations

Terah Means "Priest"
Terah's Nubian Ancestors
Abraham's Annu Ancestors
Was Terah an Idol Worshipper?

The Teraphim: Idols or Ancestor Figurines?
Why Rachel Didn't Trust Laban

Three-clan Confederations
Isaac's Three Sons
The Horite Confederation of Uz, Buz and Huz
Three Clan Confederations to Twelve Clan Confederations
Nigerian Boundary of Sheba, Jebu and Joktan
Og, Gog and Magog

Totems and Tracing the Horites in History
Using Totems to Trace Ancestry and Marriage Ties

Tower of Babel
The Confusion of Languages

Tree of Life, Tree of Knowledge, Fruit-Bearing Trees
The Tree of Life
The Fig Tree in Biblical Symbolism
African Religion Predates Hinduism
The Biblical Theme of Two Sons
Cain and Abel Twins?

Locating Biblical Ur

Water Systems and Wells
The Chaotic Water
The Stirring of the Waters
The Jordan River
Water Systems Connected the Nile and Central Africa
When the Sahara Was Wet
Women at Wells
Wells and Brides
The Blessing of Waters
Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Building

Two Passovers and Two Drunken Fathers
Oldest Wine-Making Equipment
Genesis and the Eucharist
Wine Use in Antiquity

Wisdom in Genesis
Wisdom! Let Us Attend
Review of The Beginning of Wisdom: Reading Genesis by Leon Kass
Wisdom in Genesis
Wisdom Seeks to Understand
Ancient Seats of Wisdom

Women in Genesis
Eve's Sin
The Daughters of Priests
Who Was Oholibamah?
Keturah: Wife or Concubine?
Abraham's Canaanite Mother
The Bible as Woman's Study
Mother of Seven Sons
Women at a Well
Survey of Women in Genesis
Sarah's Story
Tamar: Mother of Twins
Response to Fr. Behr's Women Disciples of the Lord
Were Rachel and Leah Half-Sisters?

Written Communication in Antiquity
Early Written Signs
Symbols of Archaic Rock Shelters
Ancient Canaanite Inscriptions
Paleolithic Ostrich Eggshells
The Urheimat of the Canaanite Y
Thamudic Scripts
Yahu Seals
The Writing System of Menes, the First Law Giver
The World's Oldest Books
The Proto-Elamite Script
Canaanite Origins of the Alphabet
The Origins of Written Communication
The Writing of David's Realm

Moses' Two Wives
Zipporah's Flint Knife