Sunday, August 12, 2018

The Shechem Abraham Never Knew



Aerial view of the ruins of Tell Balata or ancient Shechem. On the right is the Middle Bronze fortification wall dating to 1500–1200 BC, about 500 years after Abraham. The temple is seen in the upper center. (Holy Land Satellite Atlas, 1999, p. 100.)


Alice C. Linsley

Many of the incongruities of Genesis are contextual; posing a contrast between the earlier context of Abraham and the latter context of the Deuteronomist who narrates Israel's history through Moses. The Deuteronomist stresses rejection of images, exclusive devotion to the God Yahweh, and obedience to his prophet Moses (Deut. 18:18; cf. Mark 6:125; Matt. 16:13-20; John 1:21). The Deuteronomist writes from the context of the Neo-Babylonian Period, about 700-300 BC. This is about 1500 years after the time of Abraham.

The Deuteronomist seeks centralized worship at the Jerusalem temple, and the reshaping of the Passover and Tabernacles into national observances. This perspective does not align with the historical, archaeological, linguistic, and anthropological data concerning Abraham and his Nilo-Saharan ancestors.

The Deuteronomist may be responsible for reporting that Abraham visited a prophet (moreh) at a tree in Shechem. Shechem was the first capital of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. That the Deuteronomist is speaking of the remote past is evident in the phrase "at that time..."
Abram traveled through the land as far as the site of the great tree of the moreh at Shechem. At that time the Canaanites were in the land. The Lord appeared to Abram and said, “To your offspring I will give this land.” So he built an altar there to the Lord, who had appeared to him. (Gen. 12:6,7)

In Genesis 12, Shechem is described as a place with a prophet, and prophets sat under trees outside of the urban areas. The moreh who Abraham visited sat under an oak between Ai and Bethel. The tamar palm under which Deborah sat was between Bethel and Ramah (north-south axis). So we may assume that Shechem is a region as well as a city. When Abraham was there it was open land. Yet when Jacob arrived, it is described as a city. We are told that Jacob “camped within sight of the city" (Gen. 33). Either a city appeared within two generations or the description of Shechem as a city is another anachronism of the Deuteronomist, a late hand on the Genesis material.

In Genesis 12 we find language typical of the Deuterononist Historian. The Deuteronomist would have us believe that God promised Abraham the land of Canaan, or at least land that belonged to the Canaanites. Actually, Genesis 12 tells of a promise, not a covenant. God promises to show Abraham a territory which he will possess. The promise involves Abraham becoming a famous man and a being a blessing to many. Shechem is then introduced in Genesis 12:6 as the place where Yahweh said, "I shall give this country to your progeny." Was this a direct communication? Or was the communication made through the moreh at the great tree of Shechem?

In reality, Abraham's land was limited to ancient Edom or what the Greeks called Idumea, meaning land of red people. It extended on a north-south axis between Hebron and Beersheba and on an east-west axis between Ein-Gedi and Gerar. These places are shown on the map below.




Note that Shechem is not in the territory that Abraham controlled and which Isaac inherited. The Deuteronomist attempts to correct this omission. Since Shechem was the first capital of the Northern Kingdom it must also have been part of the covenant. For the Deuteronomist Historian Shechem is the most sacred city of Israel. This is evident in the books of Deuteronomy, Joshua and Judges. However, in Genesis, Abraham is associated primarily with the shrine of Mamre, which was near Hebron (Kiriath Arba). Edomites lived in Hebron.

In Jewish tradition, the Hebrew word shékém refers to a shoulder or a saddle of rock. However, the Ancient Egyptian hieroglyph pronounced 'Sekem' refers to vitality or life. It was known for the production of grapes, olives, wheat and for livestock. Genesis 37:12 speaks of Jacob's sons pasturing their flocks at Shechem.

Genesis 33:18 tells of Jacob's arrival in Shechem after his reunion with his older brother Esau, a ruler of Edom. The reunion came after Jacob left Paddan-Aram. There he bought land from the sons of Hamor, who is called "father" of Shechem (Gen. 33:19). This is typical of "sent-away" sons. They left the territories of the ruling son in order to become established as rulers in their own territories. Jacob was sent away to Paddan-Aram, but if he is to be the "father" of Israel a connection must be made between Jacob and Shechem. Thus, the Deuteronomist's vague assertion that "Jacob settled in the land where his father had stayed, the land of Canaan." (Gen. 37:1)

In Genesis 34 we are told Shechem was ruled by a Hivite named Hamor. His son who is named Shechem desired to marry Dinah, one of Jacob's daughters. This affection became the provocation for the murder of the male citizens of the city by two of Jacob's sons, Simeon and Levi. Jacob was displeased by their actions. He tells them, "You have brought trouble on me, making me odious among the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites and the Perizzites; my men are few in number, so that if they unite against me and attack me, I and my house will be destroyed." (Gen. 34:30).

The biblical data makes it evident that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob did not control the territory of Shechem. Abraham and Isaac may have sojourned there, but they never resided permanently in that region. Jacob's wanderings brought him there for a time, but he never ruled over the territory in which Shechem was a fortified city. Given all that came to pass, Jacob may have been wiser to accept the hospitality of his brother Esau and to have lived in peace in Edom, the ancestral home of his fathers. Edom, after all, is noted in the Bible as a seat of wisdom.


Related reading: How the Deuteronomist Changes the Genesis Narrative; Contextual Incongruities in Genesis


Tuesday, July 24, 2018

Where Dwelleth Japheth


"God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem." Genesis 9:27


Tent dweller in Turkey

Alice C. Linsley

The three sons of Noah who are named in the Bible are Shem, Ham and Yaphet/Japheth. We are given a great deal of information about Shem and Ham, whose lines intermarried, but not much about Yaphet. It is widely held that he represents Noah's non-Jewish descendants or that he is the progenitor of the Gentile peoples. Let's explore this.

These three sons formed a 3-clan confederation. That was how alliances for mutual defense were formed before the time of the first Temple. Other 3-clan confederations include Jubal, Jabal and Tubal; Abraham, Nahor and Haran; Moses, Korah and Aaron, and Uz, Buz and Huz. One of the more revealing confederations involves these names: Og, Gog and Magog.

The Magyar of Hungary claim to be related to Noah through Japheth. They claim a relationship to Mag-Og, meaning son/seed of Og. Og was an Amorite ruler. His territory included "the cities of the plateau, all Gilead, and all Bashan as far as the cities of Salecah and Edrei" according to Deuteronomy 3:10.

The Hungarian poet, Endre Ady, begins one of his poems: "I am the son of Góg and Magóg..." and there is a linguistic relationship between ancient Akkadian words and Hungarian words. Akkadian was the script of Nimrod's kingdom. Abraham was a descendant of Nimrod, a son of Kush (Gen. 10).

The name Og appears in Scottish history. There was a ruler called Angus Og (1299-1330). During the 1200's the Star of David appeared on Scottish coins. The Scotch-Irish term for son - Mac/Mc - is the equivalent of the Hungarian mag.

The peoples of the British Isles have a custom of naming twins in a similar way. C.S. Lewis mentions this in The Horse and His Boy. There is Dar and his brother Daren, and Cor and his brother Coran.

The names of these three sons tells us a great deal about them. SHM is related to the word for Sun (Hebrew - shemesh; Arabic - shams). HM refers to dark color, skin burnt by the Sun, and his name in the Masoretic text is Cham which is related to the feminine word for the Sun in Hebrew: chammah. Yaphet has the initial Canaanite Y, a solar cradle. All three are thereby identified with the solar symbolism of the Proto-Gospel. The Sun was the symbol of the Creator (Ra/Anu) and his son (Horus/Enki). So, it appears that the three sons shared a common religion and an aspect of that religion was the belief in a Father God who shares his glory with his son.

In Genesis 9:27, we are told that "God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem." This doesn't support the view that Japheth and Shem were separated by great distances. It appears that the two lineages dwelt together and intermingled. The descendants of both Japheth and Shem are found in Europe, Turkey (ancient Anatolia), Pakistan, Bactria, Mongolia and the Upper Nile. This explains the linguistic similarity between some Afro-Asiatic/Semitic names and names/titles in Turkish, Pashtun and Mongolian, including Jochi (Joktan/Yaqtan), Beri, Malik and Khan. Khan was originally a title, meaning king. Today it is a common surname in Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Mongolia. The biblical equivalent is Cain or Qayan. Some of the Pashtun tribes adopted Malik as the ruler's title instead of Khan. Malik is equivalent to the Afro-Asiatic/Semitic Melek, meaning king.



Is this a descendant of Japheth on a Bactrian camel?


Another look at the peoples listed in Genesis 10 reveals that the conception of Japheth as the progenitor of the Gentile nations is erroneous. Genesis 10:2-5 tells us that the sons of Japheth were:
"Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah. And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations."
Here the Ashkenazi are listed and they are regarded as Jews. Riphath is mentioned in reference to Og, the king of Bashan, who the Deuteronomist describes as the last of the rulers of Riphath (called Rephaites in some texts). All of these peoples are in Haplogroup R1a which dispersed widely across Eurasia and Central Europe between 5000 and 1000 years ago.

Before that, their ancestors in Haplogroup R1b widely dispersed, and this before the time of Noah (c. 4000 BC). Among the R1 rulers were the "mighty men of old" who dispersed into southern Europe, the Tarim Valley of China, and eventually into the British Isles.




The dark red spot in Central Africa is Noah's homeland near Lake Chad.The density there (60-100%) is about the same as in the British Isles. About 70% of native British men are in Haplogroup R1b and share an genetic ancestry with the Proto-Saharan ruler Noah.

I suggest that the movement of Noah's sons is to be associated with one of the later movements out of Africa associated with the Kushites. The term is anachronistic, since the first Kush we encounter in the Bible is Noah's grandson, the father of Nimrod, and this ruler would have lived after his Proto-Saharan ancestors had already begun to move out of central Africa into the Nile and the Levant.

It also appears that it was the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Proto-Saharan and Kushite rulers that drove their expansion out of Africa.

Earlier movements out of Africa can be explained by the presence of genetically related peoples in Europe long before Noah's time. Between 20–50 thousand years ago there appears to have been "a robust recovery of non-Africans from extremely low values of male effective population size during the OA bottleneck (Lippold et al. 2014)." This from a study of the Human Y chromosome flow which states:

Consistent with generally higher genetic diversity in African populations, the highest number of deeply splitting branches of human Y chromosome tree can be found in African populations (Cruciani et al. 2011; Mendez et al. 2013; Poznik et al. 2013; Wei et al. 2013). The extant variation in other continents is mainly restricted to three branches of the M168 clade: D, C and F (Hallast et al. 2015; Karmin et al. 2015; Poznik et al. 2013, 2016; Scozzari et al. 2014; Wei et al. 2013). Genetic variation within each of these three clades coalesces to a single founding lineage within 40–60 KYA time depth, consistent with the Out of Africa (OOA) dispersal model (Stringer 2002). In addition to these three clades, the populations of Near East and Europe also show the presence of young sub-clades of haplogroup E which are likely to reflect recent episodic gene flow from Africa within the last 25 KYA and a range expansion of a sub-clade E2a1-V13 in Europe within the last few thousand years (Cruciani et al. 2007)

A closer look at the biblical data explains why Japheth is thought of as the “Father of the Europeans” or the founder of the "Japhetic" nations. However, he and his offspring are relatively late comers to Eurasia and Central Europe. The peoples who come to be called "Gentiles" were already in Europe about 70,000 years ago. Genesis 9:27 refers to the later spreading out of the territory of Japheth in the tents of Shem. The relationship of the lines of Japheth and Shem reflects the complex and intricate connection between the earlier history of the R1b and R1a peoples. And it should not be forgotten that the lines of Shem and Ham also dwelt together and intermarried.


Related reading: Three-Clan ConfederationsCain as Ruler; Sub-Saharan DNA of Modern Jews; The Lines of Ham and Shem Intermarried; Noah's Descendants


Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Natufian Culture


Alice C. Linsley

Over a million years ago elephants, rhinoceros, giraffes, water buffaloes and lions roamed the Judean Hills around Jerusalem. Remains of some of these animals have been found in Bethlehem, less than 5 miles from Jerusalem. The bones date to between 1.4-1.8 million years. These finds are the earliest signs of human existence near Jerusalem.

A small Natufian sculpture represented sexual intercourse was found in one of caves near Bethlehem. It dates to about 11,000 years ago. Bethlehem has along association with the biblical Horite Hebrew.

The British archaeologist Dorothy Gerrod coined the term "Natufian" while studying remains from the Shuqba cave at Wadi an-Natuf in Palestine. The term is derived from the place, but Natufian ceramics and stone work has been found in other locations as well.

Natufian territory
The Natufians populated an area that includes parts of Western Egypt (Fayoum Oasis), Palestine (especially around Mount Carmel), Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon between 15,000 and 9,000 years ago.

When the Natufians lived in this region it received sufficient precipitation to sustain crops and orchards. During the Holocene period, the whole region from the Nile to the Jordan was wet and there were abundant wadis, salt marshes and swamps. This explains the abundance of tortoise shells at the Natufian burial sites.

Natufian territory is in the heartland of biblical Eden which extended from the Upper Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, according to Genesis 2:10-14.

The Natufians in Jordan were baking bread 14,500 years ago. Their diet consisted of meat and plants. The bread was made from wild cereals such as barley, einkorn or oats, and tubers from an aquatic papyrus relative. These were ground into flour and baked in round fire pits made from flat basalt stones, and were located in the middle of huts.

The Natufians practiced the removal of teeth as an initiation rite, a trait of Nilotic peoples. Among the Nilotic Luo initiation involves the removal of six front teeth using the tip of a spear. This practice, called naak or nak, persists in some Luo clans, especially in Africanized Churches in Luoland, such as the Legio Maria sect. The Luo recognize “Kar-nak” to mean place of rituals.

British Archaeologist, Graeme Barker, notes "the similarities in the respective archaeological records of the Natufian culture of the Levant and of contemporary foragers in coastal North Africa across the late Pleistocene and early Holocene boundary."[1]

Harvard Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology, Ofer Bar-Yosef, notes that microlithic forms such as arched backed bladelets and La Mouillah points, as well as the parthenocarpic figs found in Natufian territory, originated in the Sudan.[2]

It appears that the Natufians were originally a Nilotic people. This is further suggested by the fact that Natufian physiology indicates a Mediterranean type with negroid affinities. (See Marcellin Boule, Henri Vallois, and René Verneau, Les Grottes Palaeolithiques de Beni Séghoual, pp. 212—214.) [3]

Distinguished Research Professor at UCLA, Christopher Ehret, notes that the intensive use of plants among the Natufians was first found in Africa, as a precursor to the development of farming in the Fertile Crescent.[4]


Is there a relationship between the Natufians and the biblical Horites?

Bethlehem is associated with the Horites in I Chronicles 4:4 which names Hur (Hor) as the "father of Bethlehem." Rahab of Jericho was the wife of Salmon, the son of Hur (Horite). Salmon is called the "father of Bethlehem" in 1 Chronicles 2:54. Rahab was the grandmother of Boaz who married Ruth. Salmon is a Horite name associated with Bethlehem in 1 Chronicles 2:51.

The Horites were a caste of ruler-priests who were devotees of Horus and his mother Hathor. The oldest known Horite shrine city is Nekhen in Sudan and dates to about 4000 BC. The votive offerings there are ten times larger than those found elsewhere, attesting to the prestige of the shrine.

The prominence of the Horites is attested in Genesis 36 which gives the ruling line of Seir the Horite. These people have been recognized as Abraham's kin, and the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Horites of Seir is identical to the pattern of Abraham's Nilo-Saharan ancestors.

Decorated ostrich-egg vessels and ostrich shell beads also have been found at Natufian sites and burial grounds. In ancient Kush, painted ostrich eggs were placed in the graves of children, symbolizing the hope of life after death.

It is not far-fetched to speculate that the Natufians were related to the Nilotes among whom there were Horite priests whose religious beliefs and practices can be traced to the Upper Nile. The principal religious office of the Horites was that of the priest, so it is curious that archaeologists working at Hilazon Tachtit, near the Sea of Galilee, insist that this burial site suggests shamanic practices. Here is the pertinent section of their report:

The goods accompanying the burial are also typical of shaman burials. Tortoises, cow tails, eagle wings, and fur-bearing animals continue to play important symbolic and shamanistic roles in the spiritual arena of human cultures worldwide today [e.g., (28)]. It seems that the woman in the Natufian burial was perceived as being in a close relationship with these animal spirits. Shamans are universally recorded cross-culturally, in hunter gatherer groups and small-scale agricultural societies (25). Nevertheless, they have rarely been documented in the archaeological record [but see (29)], and none have been reported from the Paleolithic of Southwest Asia. Perhaps, it is not surprising if clear evidence for a shaman comes from the Natufian, as the profound social and economic changes associated with the transition to agriculture [the Neolithization process (6)] surfaced during the Natufian and undoubtedly entailed equally substantial ideological changes (30, 31, 32). Whether the changes in the spiritual outlook preceded and triggered the economic changes (33) or vice versa, an inseparable interplay is clearly observed between ideological and socioeconomic change across the forager-to-farmer transition. The unique grave at Hilazon Tachtit Cave provides us with rare concrete evidence for those processes in their initial stages at the termination of the Paleolithic on the eve of the Neolithic transformation. (From here.)

The report assumes that one of the buried women was a shaman, something that can't be ascertained from the evidence. Note that the report makes no specific connections between the supposed female shaman and observed shamanic practices. This is pure conjecture!  It is highly unlikely that these people had both priests and shamans since the two offices represent distinct and contradictory worldviews. Shamanic practice involves traces in which the shaman mediates between the spirits of dead ancestors and the community. Such a practice was forbidden to priests, whose role was to mediate between the community and the Creator God.

The Natufians were more likely to have had priests since that office originates in the Nile region and the priestly office is older than that of the shaman. Shamans are found among people groups that are geographically distant from the point of origin of humans in Africa. When we move closer to the point of origin, we find practices that we associate with the priesthood of the ancient Hebrew: animal sacrifice, circumcision, concern about ritual purity, sacred moral codes, etc. Thus, it is safe to conclude that the biblical priesthood is older than the office of the shaman. Its point of origin is among Abraham’s Nilotic and Proto-Saharan ancestors. These peoples had already dispersed into the Arabian Peninsula, Mesopotamia, Southern Europe, and the Indus Valley between 70,000 and 50,000 years ago.

It is interesting to note that the animals buried with the Natufian woman are mentioned in the book of Job and the genealogical information in the Bible reveals that Job was a Horite Hebrew. This woman's burial indicates that she was of high rank among her people. However, we should not assume that she was a shaman when the symbolism of the animals found in her grave is easily explained in the context of the religious beliefs of the Upper Nile. These animals were sacred to the ancient Nubians and Kushites who had priests, not shamans.

The two birds, which appear to be released from the woman's hand, likely represent the binary worldview of Abraham's ancestors and remind us of the two birds released by Noah. The leopard’s skin designated royalty and was worn over the shoulders by Kushite and Nilo-Saharan ruler-priests, with the paws crossed over the breast. The cow was the totem of the celestial mother who was called Hathor, the mother of Horus. Her veneration spread throughout the ancient world.


Related reading: Natufian Burial Site in Galilee; World's Oldest Bread Found in Jordan; Shamanic Practice and the Priesthood; Boats and Cows of the Proto-Saharans


NOTES

1. Barker G, Transitions to farming and pastoralism in North Africa, in Bellwood P, Renfrew C (2002), Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis, pp 151–161.

2. Bar-Yosef  O., Pleistocene connections between Africa and South West Asia: an archaeological perspective. The African Archaeological Review; Chapter 5, pg 29-38; Kislev ME, Hartmann A, Bar-Yosef O, Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley. Nature 312:1372–1374.

3. The French School of Anthropology developed under the influence of Paul Broca. Boule studied the Peking Man fossils, Henri Vallois served as Chair of the Museum of Natural History in Paris from 1960 to 1967, and René Verneau studied paleolithic rock paintings in North Africa.

4. Ehret (2002) The Civilizations of Africa: A History to 1800. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia


Friday, July 13, 2018

Index of Topics at JUST GENESIS





Just Genesis presents the latest research on the book of Genesis drawing on the disciplines of cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, molecular genetics, and climate studies. Just Genesis began on 22 March 2007. This INDEX is an archive of most of the research published here.

If you are new to this research, it would be helpful to begin with these articles:


INDEX (Current as of 18 August 2018)

Abel
Cain's Murder of Abel
Life is in the Blood
Were Cain and Abel Twins?
Lenten Meditation of Cain and Abel

Abraham
Who Was Abraham?
Abraham's Authority and Ancient Law Codes
Was Abraham a Black Man?
Abraham's Habiru Ancestors
Abraham and the Hittites
Abraham's Complaint
The Calling of Abraham
Abraham's Audience with Pharaoh
Abraham's Maternal Line
Challenge to Shaye Cohen's Portrayal of Abraham
Was Abraham the First Jew?
Where Abraham Spent His Old Age
Abraham's Two Concubines
Keturah: Wife or Concubine?
Abraham's Sons
Abraham's Nephews and Niece
Abraham's Ancestors Came Out of Africa
The Bosom of Abraham
Abraham and Circumcision
Was Abraham a Pagan?
Was Abraham a Liar?
Abraham and Moses: Different Origins of Israel?
Abraham and Job: Horite Rulers
Abraham and Moses as Types of Christ
Abraham's Horite Mother
The Substance of Abraham's Faith
Abraham's Saharan Ancestors
Abraham on Mount Moriah
What Abraham Learned on Mt. Moriah
What Color Was Abraham?
Busting Myths Concerning Abraham

Adam and Eve
The Historical Adam
Adam Was a Red Man
Adam According to Mesopotamian Tradition
Dr. John Walton on the Historicity of Adam
Blaming Original Sin on Adam
Dating Adam: Paul H. Sheely Proposes a Solution
Adam and Eve: The "Blood" and the "Birther"
Another False Claim About Adam and Eve
Are Adam and Eve Real?
Answers to Students' Questions About Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve: Archetypal First Ancestors
Adam and Enoch: Archetype and Ancestor
Objections to the Fundamentalist Reading of Genesis 1-5
The Real Adam
Elder Joseph on Adam and Eve
Eve's Sin
The First Historical Persons in Genesis
The Biblical Meaning of Eve

Africa
When the Sahara Was Wet
African Context of Genesis
The Mighty Men of Old
Abraham's Ancestors Came Out of Africa
God's African Ancestors
The Origin of Castes
Africa is Archaeologically Rich
Qesem Cave Finds in Perspective
Conversation with Hausa Muslim
Conversation About Igbo Origins
An African Reflects on Biblical Names
Genesis and African Bishops
African Naming Practices

Afro-Arabian
The Dedanites
Qesem Cave Finds in Perspective
Alignment of Oldest Mosques
Kushite and Horite Rulers Linked
Peleg: Time of Division
Using Arab Math to Uncover the Authors of the Torah

Afro-Asiatic
Afro-Asiatic Metalworkers
The Afro-Asiatic Dominion
The Spread of the Afro-Asiatic Worldview
Was Genghis Khan the Last Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Builder?
Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Building
Decline of the Afro-Asiatic Rulers
Nimrod: Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Builder
Afro-Asiatic Rulers and the Celestial Archetype
Akkadian Dictionary Finished
The Proto-Elamite Script

Ainu/Annu
The Annu/Ainu of On (Iunu)
Horned Altars and Horned Sacred Vessels
Solving the Ainu Mystery
Abraham's Ainu Ancestors
The Nile-Japan Ainu Connection
A Kindling of Ancient Memory
Annu/Ainu a "First People"
Making Sense of Genesis 10
From the Nile to the Philippines: Tracing the Gurjars

Alice C. Linsley
Genesis Informs My Theology
When is the Evidence Sufficient?
Address to the International Catholic Congress of  Anglicans
Genesis Has Strengthened My Faith
Analysis of the Genesis 4 and 5 King Lists
Hearing the Echo
Telling My Story, Part 1
Telling My Story, Part 3
Ancestors and Archetypes
Adam and Enoch as Archetype and Ancestor
The Father of Cain and Seth
Were Abraham's Ancestors Rulers or Refugees?
Oholibamah: Ancestor and Archetype of Mary
Horus: King of the Universe
The Eyes of Horus Speak of Jesus
Adam and Eve as Archetypes
The Celestial Archetype
Nilotic-Kushitic Celestial Archetypes
Questions Asked by Primitive Man

Anglican
Anglican Fudge: Women Priests
Freeing God From Gender and Tradition
My Perspective on Women Priests
TEC Activists Hate the Nigerian Church
Discern the Spirits and Pray for the ACNA
The Doctrine of Creation and the Doctrine of the Church (Richard Hooker)
The Priesthood in England - Part 1
The Priesthood in England - Part 2
The Priesthood in England - Part 3
The Priesthood in England - Conclusion
Some Thoughts of Women Priests
TEC: The formless and void
Anglicanism and Spiritualism
Are Anglican Bishops Schismatic?
The Crisis of Authority in Anglicanism
Modernist-Traditionalist Divide in Anglicanism
Impressions of the New American Anglicanism
Growing Consensus that Women's Ordination Must Be Addressed
Anglicanism on the Doctrine of Creation
N.T. Wright Should Admit His Own Church's Failing

Animals
Ram Symbolism in the Ancient World
Abraham's Camels
The Animals on Noah's Arc
Why Cows Were Sacred in the Ancient World
Noah's Birds
Serpent Symbolism
The Bull's Head in Antiquity
The Ostrich in Biblical Symbolism
Dogs in the Bible
Of Lions and Downton Abbey
Red Stag/Red Deer

Apologetics
Discrepancies are Evidence of Authenticity
The Purpose of the Bible
Questions High Schoolers Ask About Genesis
Answers to High Schoolers' Questions about God
Answers to High Schoolers' Questions About Adam and Eve
Answers to High Schoolers' Questions About the Flood
Answers to High Schoolers' Questions About the Earth
Gender and the Bible
Why Prejudice Against a Scientific Approach to the Bible?

Archaic Humans
Many Groups of Archaic Humans
1.5 Million Year Human Footprint
The Dispersal of Archaic Humans
Was Lucy Human?
Facts about Human Origins
Humans Originated in Africa
Swimming and Diving Among Archaic Peoples
The Beginnings of Spoken Language
Religion of the Archaic Rulers
Some Marks of Prehistoric Religion
Swimming and Diving: Activities of Archaic Communities
Symbols of Archaic Rock Shelters
Archaic Nes Peoples

Architecture
The Pillars of Solomon's Temple
Prehistoric Obelisk Found in Judah
Circumcision and Circles of Standing Stones in the Judean Hills
Horite Temples
The High Places
The Shrine City of Nekhen
77,000-Year Settlement in Sudan
Europe's Oldest Prehistoric Town Unearthed in Bulgaria
The Trapezoid in Ancient Architecture
Sheep Cotes

Art
El Castillo Rock Art in Perspective
3000 BC Rock Art in Sudan
The Scarlet Cord: A Poem and a Painting


Astronomy and Physics
Pondering Divine Epiphanies
The Pyramids of Bosnia
Jesuit Astronomer on the Higgs Boson
Higgs Boson: Expected End in Particle Physics
The Celestial Dance Observed by the Magi
A Series Worth Mention
The Bethlehem Star
The Sun and Moon in Genesis
Two Powers in Heaven
Eliade Was Right About Celestial Archetypes
Afro-Asiatic Rulers and the Celestial Archetype
Ancient African Astronomers

Atheism
Atheist Students Think that Science is on Their Side
The Atheist's Fallacious Argument
Francis Bacon on Atheism
Ancient Wisdom, Science, and Technology: A Response to Atheism

Authorship (Genesis)
How the Deuteronomist Changes the Genesis Narrative
The Documentary Hypothesis Not Compatible with Current Research
Professor James Barr on Genesis
Who Wrote Genesis?
Is Mosaic Authorship Necessary?
The Possibility of Davidic Authorship
How Did Genesis Come to Be?

Babylonian
Akkadian Lexicon
New Fragment Reveals More About Humbaba
Atrahasis and Noah: Similarities and Differences

Barren
The Barren and Grieving Rejoice
The Nature of Barrenness in the Hebrew Bible by Joel Baden

Bethlehem
David's Royal City
Bethlehem in the Time of Abraham
The Ark Rested in Bethlehem
Bethlehem: A Horite Settlement
Natufian Culture
4000 Year Bethlehem Town
Horite Expectation and the Star of Bethlehem
The Virgin Birth and the Manger Too!
Who Were the Horites?
The Bethlehem Star
The Celestial Dance Observed by the Magi
The Holy One Hidden and Revealed

Bible and History
Does the Bible Advocate Genocide?
Episode 1: History Channel Scores a C
Episode 2: Horite Prophets and Kings
Episode 3: The Messiah appears!
Episode 4: The King is Revealed
Success of Bible Series Hard to Assess
Scientific Verification of the Genesis 10 Dispersion
Genesis on the Ancient Kingdom Builders
The Afro-Asiatic Dominion

Biblical Anthropology
Support Research in Biblical Anthropology
Biblical Anthropology is the Work of Christians
Paul H. Sheely on YEC Dogma and Concordism
INDEX of Topics on Biblical Anthropology
Genesis in Anthropological Perspective
Something Older
Biblical Anthropology and Antecedents
When is the Evidence Sufficient?
Seligman's Legacy
Cultural Context and the Bible
The Murky Waters of Insanity
Is Biblical Anthropology an Oxymoron?
What Does a Biblical Anthropologist Do?
Between Biblical Literalism and Biblical Illiteracy
Biblical Anthropology is Scientific Study of the Bible
The Bible and Anthropological Investigation
The Sacred Center in Biblical Theology
A Blog Dedicated to Biblical Anthropology
Genesis Through the Lens of Anthropology
Biblical Anthropology: Image of God or Imaging God?
Race and the Bible
The Bible and the Question of Race
Jacques Derrida and Biblical Anthropology
Ignoring Anthropologically Significant Data

Biblical Peoples, Castes and Clans
Royal Names in Genesis
Abusing Biblical Lists
Natufian Culture
Ruler-Priests: A cult or caste?
Petra Reflects Horite Belief
The Mighty Men of Old
The Jebusites: Extant Biblical People
Who Were the Horites?
Who Were the Kushites?
The Habiru/Hapiru
Extant Biblical Tribes and Clans
Joseph of Ar-Mathea: Fact and Fiction

Biblical Worldview
The Ruach of God
Afro-Asiatic Symbols that Speak of God
Afro-Asiatic Religious Life
The Importance of Binary Distinctions
Genesis and Jacques Derrida
The Cosmology of Abraham's People
Tracing the Scarlet Cord
African Religion Predates Hinduism
Afro-Asiatic vs Aryan Religion: The Horse as Example
Who Were the Hapiru?

Binary Sets/Binary Distinctions/Binary Worldview
Binary Sets and Gender Distinctions
Binary Sets and the Binary Worldview
The Importance of Binary Distinctions
The Binary Aspect of the Biblical Worldview
Does the Binary Feature Signal Greater Complexity?
Today's Savage Mind
Binary Sets in the Ancient World
Blood and Binary Distinctions
Circumcision and Binary Distinctions
Binary Distinctions and Kenosis
The Theme of Hidden Sons
The Biblical Theme of Two Sons
Time and Eternity
A Conversation About Binary Distinctions

Birds
Noah's Birds
Sea Birds Use Sense of Smell to Navigate
The Chiastic Center of Ecclesiasticus

Blood Symbolism/Sacrifice
Blood Guilt and Christ's Priesthood
Blood and Gender Distinctions
Water and Blood
Life is in the Blood
What Constitutes Being?
Blood and Binary Distinctions
Mining Blood
The Pleromic Blood and Gnosticism
The Blood of Jesus
God as Male Priest

Book Reviews
John Coats on Genesis
Leon Kass on Genesis
Patrick Henry Reardon on Genesis
John Walton's Lost World of Genesis One
Narby's Cosmic Serpent
Terry Mortenson's Coming to Grips With Genesis
Commentaries of Genesis
Martin Luther on Genesis
John Calvin on Genesis
John Wesley on Genesis
Herman Gunkel on Genesis

Bulls and Bovine Symbolism
The Bull's Head in Antiquity
The Aleph as Ox Head
Israel Museum Reopens

Cain/Kain
Cain's Banishment
Cain as Ruler
The Proto-Saharan Rulers Cain and Seth
The Mark of Cain
God's Mercy and Cain's Demise
The Descendants of Cain and Seth
The Kingdoms of Cain and Seth
From Cain to Jesus Christ
Who Did Cain Marry?
Cain's Father
Genesis 4 and 5 King Lists
Mohammed and the Descendants of Cain
Ancient Symbols of Authority Linked to Cain
Cain's Princess Bride

Canaanite
The Peoples of Canaan
The Urheimat of the Canaanite Y
The Clans of Ar
The Mighty Men of Old
Canaanite Origins of the Alphabet
Ancient Canaanite Inscriptions
Abraham's Canaanite Mother

Cartoons
Adam's Bad Dream
Genesis is Spelled With a G
On the Lighter Side
Noah's Dog
Call it a day!
Pachyderm Complaint
Life on the Ark

Castes
The Origin of Castes
Evidence of Castes in the Book of Ruth

Cattle/Cattle Herding
Why Cows Were Sacred in the Ancient World
Nilotic Cattle Herders
Twin Pyramids and Sphinx in Zinder
A Tent for the Sun

Christ/Messiah in Genesis
Messiah's Sign in Creation
"Easter" Eggs in Antiquity
The Christ in Nilotic Mythology
The Risen Christ in Genesis
Tracing the Scarlet Cord
One Greater Than Moses
Did Abraham Believe Isaac to be the Messiah?
Abraham and Moses Prefigure Christ
In the Beginning... was Love
The Holy One Hidden and Revealed

Christianity
The Origins of Christianity, Part 1
Christian Faith Emerges from the Faith of Abraham
Witnesses to the Truth of Christianity
"Easter" Eggs in Antiquity

Christmas
Merry Christmas to the Readers of Just Genesis
Mary, the Mound and the Bread of Life
Christmas Message From Genesis
Genesis and the True Meaning of Christmas
The Virgin Birth and the Manger Too!
Christians Are Christmas People
Egypt in the Christmas Narrative

Church Fathers
Recap of What We've Learned from St. Basil
St. Augustine on Divine Illumination
St. John Chrysostom on Lamech
St. John Chrysostom on Lamech's Speech
Clement of Alexandria on Biblical Concealment
St. Augustine on Genesis
Augustine on Days of Creation
Jerome's Extraordinary Insights on Genesis

St Basil's Sermons on the Days of Creation (The Hexaemeron)
St. Basil the Great
In the Beginning God
God Said "Let There be Light."
On Germination
On Luminous Bodies
On Moving Creatures
The Creation of Fowl and Water Creatures
On the Creation of Terrestrial Animals

Circumcision
The Origins of Circumcision
Circumcision and Standing Stones in Judea
A Bridegroom of Blood
Circumcision Debated
Circumcision and Binary Distinctions
Abraham and Circumcision
Zipporah's Flint Knife

Climate
Climate Cycles Indicate a Dynamic Earth
When the Sahara Was Wet
Kansas Science Bill Faces Defeat
Rick Pott's Variability Hypothesis has Biblical support
Antarctica Once Had Baobab Trees
Climate Change and Genesis
Decline of the Afro-Asiatic Dominion
Lower Solar Irradiance, Higher Atmospheric Temps?
Climate Cycles and Noah's Flood
Climate Studies and the Book of Genesis
Genesis and Climate Change
When the Sahara Was Wet
Answers to High Schoolers' Questions About the Flood

Commentators on Genesis
List of Commentaries on Genesis
Jacob Böehme on Genesis

Concordism
The Danger of Concordism
Paul H. Sheely on Concordism
Genesis: On Gaps and Overlaps
Gap Theory or Gap Fact?
The Creation Museum
This Gets My Blood Pressure Up!

Cosmology
Cosmology of Abraham's People
Christ's Sign in Creation
Cosmology and Ethics
The Importance of Binary Distinctions
Reality is Cross Shaped
Hierarchy in Creation: The Biblical View

Cousin Bride's Naming Prerogative
Lamech Segment Analysis
The Cousin Bride's Naming Prerogative
Denying Marriage: A cunning royal strategy
Evidence of the Cousin Bride's Naming Prerogative
Tut's Father Had Two Queens
Some 'Cousin' Brides Were Nieces
Cousin Brides and Their Ruler Sons
Speiser and Deuteronomy 21:16
Lot's Daughters

Creationism (Young Earth)
YEC Dogma is NOT Biblical
Bishop Ussher Goofed
False Assumption #1 of YEC
False Assumption #2 of YEC
False Assumption #3 of YEC
False Assumption #4 of YEC
False Assumption #5 of YEC
The Age of the Earth
The Battle Over Genesis
Science Teachers and Creationism
Are Science and Scripture at Odds?
This Gets My Blood Pressure Up!
Between Biblical Literalism and Biblical Illiteracy
Stephen M. Barr on Young Earth Creationism
The Creation Museum

Creationism (Old Earth)
Genesis Has No Evolutionary Framework
Genesis on Humans and Apes
The Age of the Earth and the Evidence of Human Occupation
Meat Consumption 3 Million Years Ago
Conversation on Creationism About False Choices
Evidence of an Old Earth - Part 1
Evidence of an Old Earth - Part 2
Biblical Evidence of an Old Earth
Gap Theory or Gap Fact?
Humans Originated in Africa
1.5 Million Human Footprints in Kenya
Scientific Verification of the Genesis 10 Dispersion
Facts about Human Origins
Evangelicals Surrender Too Much Ground to Darwin
Q and A on Creation and Evolution
370 Million Fish Found
African Projectiles 90,000 Years Old
77,000 Year Old Mattresses
Rightly Reading Genesis 1-3
What Genesis Tells Us About Creation
Genesis and Genetics
The Making of Man
Theories of Creation: An Overview

Creation: Theistic; Darwinian
Biblical Anthropology and the Question of Common Ancestry
Genesis on Humans and Apes
Questioning the Common Ancestry Hypothesis
The Binary Aspect of the Biblical Worldview
Does the Binary Feature Signal Greater Organic Complexity?
Concerns About BioLogos
Darwin: Fact and Fiction
Dmanisi Finds Call for Radical Rethink of Human Speciation
Thomas Nagel: Neo-Darwinian Conception is False
The Evolution of Darwinian Evolution
Was Lucy Human?
Has Science Buried God?
Have Humans Outgrown Natural Selection?
Christians Debate Genesis and Evolution
Biblical Anthropologists Discuss Darwin
The Slatest Lambasts Texas "Creationism"

Creation Stories
The Themes of Genesis 1-3
The Genesis Creation Stories
Literalists in Good Standing?
Rightly Reading Genesis 1-3
Genesis 1 Sets the Scene
Genesis: Just a Story for Ancient Peoples?
Andrew Parker's Genesis Enigma

Cross
The Sacred Center in Biblical Theology
Christ's Sign in Creation
Blood and Crosses
Three Specimens to Ponder
Crosses in Astro-Sidereal Theology

C.S. Lewis
C.S. Lewis on Genesis
C.S. Lewis on Evolution
Priestesses in the Church?
C.S. Lewis on the Resurrection

Dating/Prehistory
Calculating the Dates of the Patriarchs
Who Wrote Genesis?
Africa in the Days of Noah
Ancient Earthquakes

David
The Ethnicity of David and Abraham
The Jerusalem that David Knew
Elah Fortress

Days of Creation
Answers to High Schoolers' Questions About the Age of the Earth
Days of Creation: Literal or Figurative?
The Age of the Earth

Death
The Sting of Death
Burial Practices of the Rulers of Old

Deified Sons/Deified Rulers
Enoch: Angelic Being or Deified Ruler?
Why Does Genesis Speak of Gods?
Deified Rulers and the Resurrection
Deified Sons
Potiphar, Son of Horus

Derrida, Jacques
Something Older
Genesis and Jacques Derrida
Levi-Strauss and Derrida on Binary Oppositions

Deuteronomist
Genesis Through the Lens of the Deuteronomist
Contextual Incongruities in Genesis
Graven Images and Idols
Fundamentalism and Syncretism in Hebrew History

Dispensationalism
The Problem With Dispensationalism
God Has Made Progress With Us
Dispensationalism and the Three Witnesses

DNA/Genetics
The Kushite Spread of Haplogroup R1*-M173 from Africa to Eurasia
Genesis and Molecular Genealogy
Hunter-Gatherer Study Inconclusive
Tut's Father Had Two Queens
Ethiopian DNA Study Ignores Significant Data
Abraham was a Descendant of Shem and Ham
Migrations Out of Africa
Denisovan Populations
Sub-Saharan DNA of Modern Jews
Haplogroups of Interest to Biblical Anthropologists
Genetic Risks in Cousin Marriage
Genetic Adam Never Knew Genetic Eve
Genesis and Molecular Genealogy
DNA Confirms Mixed Ancestry of Jews
Mitochondrial Eve
Genesis and Genetics
A Kindling of Ancient Memory

Documentary Hypothesis
The Documentary Hypothesis
Documents, Sources and God's Purpose
Should Genesis Be Taught in Public Schools?

Dreams and Visions
The Dragon and the Beast of Revelation
Dreams in Genesis

Drunken Fathers
Two Passovers and Two Drunken Fathers
Lot's Daughters

Dung Beetle
The Dung Beetle and Celestial Lights
Of Dung Beetles and Red Herrings

Early Bronze Age Settlements
The High Places
The Fertile Crescent and the Cradle of Civilization
Why Nekhen is Anthropologically Significant
Hazor's Destruction: Another Theory
Before the Mummies: The Saharan Antecedents of the Pharaohs

Eastern Orthodoxy
The Orthodox Study Bible
An Eastern Orthodox Approach to Genesis?
The Blessing of Waters

Eber
Who was Eber?
Who were the Habiru?

Eden
What the Bible Says About Eden
The Paradise of Ancient Memory
The Search for Eden
Why Jesus Visited Tyre
What Happened in the Garden?
What Paradise Must Have Been
The Garden of Eden: Myth or Real?
Eden: A Well-Watered Region
The Serpent of Eden

Edenic Promise (Gen. 3:15)
God's Word Never Fails

Edom
Edo, Edom, Idumea
Petra Reflects Horite Belief
The Edomites and the Color Red

Egypt
Egypt and Israel by W.M. Flinders Petrie
Ancient Egyptian Lexicon
A Visit to King Tut's Seattle Exhibit
Tut's Father Married his Cousin
Egypt in the Book of Genesis
Ancient Egyptians Were Seafaring
Ritual Sex and Ancient Egyptian Priests
Medical Care in Ancient Egypt
The World's Oldest Book Found in Egypt
Egypt in the Christmas Narrative
Horus, King of the Universe
Plato's Debt to Ancient Egypt

Eliezer of Damascus
Who Was Eliezar of Damascus?
Abraham's Two Concubines

Enoch/Enosh/Hanock
Enoch: Angelic Being or Deified Ruler?
Is Enoch a Royal Title?
Teraphim: Idols or Ancestor Figurines?
Are the Names Enoch and Enosh Equivalent?
Is the Land of Nod the Region of Nok?

Esau
Esau in Yoruba Tradition
Two Named Esau

Eschatology
Yes, Virginia, There is a Kingdom
The Kingdom of God in Genesis
Gog and Magog
Genesis and the Eucharist
The Water, the Blood and the Spirit

Ethics in Genesis
Cosmology and Ethics
Such a God as This
Leon Kass on Genesis
Abraham's Authority and Ancient Law Codes

The Fall
On the Fall, Mortality, and the Age of the Earth
Humanity's Fallen Existence
Original Sin or Ancestral Sin?
The Extent of the Fall
The Genesis Kings and the Fall

Feminist Interpretations
Are Feminist Correct About the Church?
Sit Down Before You Read This Essay on "Women's Status in the Bible"
Are Women More Sensitive to Bias?
The Question of Patriarchy
The Paradox of Feminism
The Question of Patriarchy
The Bible as the Woman's Story

Flood
The Historicity of Noah's Flood
Dark Sky and Howling Wind
Atrahasis and Noah: Similarities and Differences
Noah's Flood: Where and When?
How Big was Noah's Flood?
Analysis of the Flood Story
Noah's Flood: Forces Beyond Our Control
Africa in the days of Noah
Climate Cycles and Noah's Flood
Noah's Ark: Looking in the Right Place
Noah's Ark
Noah's Birds
Noah and the Black Sea Theory
Dark Sky and Howling Wind
Replica (Almost) of Noah's Ark
Kentucky to Get Noah's Ark Theme Park

Fossils
Is Scientific Dating of Fossils Reliable?
Earth's First Fossils Neither Vegetation nor Animal
Does the Binary Feature Signal Greater Complexity?

Gender
God as Male Priest
Gender Reversal and Sacred Mystery

Genesis
In the Beginning God Created
Contextual Incongruities in Genesis
Genesis and the Stone Age
Common Questions About Genesis
Merisms in Genesis
The Science Guy Reveals His Ignorance
A Scientific Timeline of Genesis
Why Genesis Matters
The Battle Over Genesis
John Walton's Lost World of Genesis One
The Nilotic Substrata of Genesis 1
Genesis One: A Mistranslation?
Parsing Genesis 1:1-2
A Creature After God's Kind
Heaven or Heavens: Does It Matter?
Reading the First Few Chapters of the Bible

Geology
Afar Rift Provides Valuable Information
Phil Jones on Burnet's Sacred Theology of the Earth
Psalm 104:8 and Flood Geology

GLOSSARY (Anthropological Terms)

God
God's Motive For Creation
Calvin on God's Motive for Creation
Answers to Questions About God

Gog and Magog
Gog and Magog in Myth and Literature
Connecting Gog, Magog and Og to Abraham

Gold
The Gold of Ophir
Kushite Gold

Government and Law
Evidence for Ancient Government and Law in Genesis
The Law of Te-hut
Ancient Law Codes
Judging Between Two Brothers

Hagar
The Conversion of Hagar
Hagar's Journeys
Abraham's Two Concubines

Ham
The Lines of Ham and Shem Intermarried
The Curse of Ham Falls Also on Shem
Rabbinic Disparaging of the Hamites/Kushites
The God of Shem is the God of Ham

Haran
Locating Biblical Ur

Heaven
Heaven or Heavens: Does it Matter?
Cosmology and Ethics

Hebrew Language
Is Hebrew an African Language?
Hebrew Logic

Heresy
Avoiding Heresy
The Importance of Binary Distinctions
Gene Robinson on the Bible
Why the Episcopal Church Leadership Hates the Nigerians

Hidden Sons
The Theme of Hidden Sons
The Holy One Hidden and Revealed

Hittites
Abraham and the Hittites
The Hittites of Anatolia
Hittite Religion
The Luwian: Another Theory

Holy Tradition
What is Holy Tradition?
The Maleness of Jesus
Ideologies Opposed to Holy Tradition
Women Priests
Received Tradition vs Special Revelation
The Stream of Holy Tradition
We're in Big Trouble

Holy Week
Maundy Thursday: The Deceiving Worm
Good Friday: The Lamb is Bound
Why is Good Friday Good?
Holy Saturday: Christ Breaks the Seal
St. John Chrysostom's Pascua Homily
C.S. Lewis on the Resurrection
The Empty Tomb
Christ's Resurrection in Genesis

Horite Hebrew
Habiru, Hapiru, 'Apiru, or Hebrew?
Frank Moore Cross:  Israel's God is the God of the Horites
Ruler-Priests: A cult or a caste?
Denying Marriage: A cunning royal strategy
Lamech's Story and Horite Kinship
The Myth of Israel's Dual Origins
Who Were the Horites?
Samuel's Horite Family
Horite Territory
Abraham and Job: Horite Rulers
Architecture Links Nabateans and Horites
Kushite and Horite Rulers Linked
Missionary Horite Priests
Horite Confederation of Sheba, Jebu and Joktan
Horite Priests and the Hapiru
Some Jews and Arabs Have Horite Blood
The Kenite-Horite Connection
Origins of the Word "Horite"

Horses
7000 BC Horse Burial Linked to Sheba
A Tent for the Sun
Petra Reflects Horite Belief
Afro-Asiatic vs Aryan Religion: the Horse as Example

Horus as Messianic archetype
Seal Connects Hezekiah with Horite Beliefs
Who is Jesus?
The Re-Horus-Hathor Narrative
Jesus and the Horus Narrative
The Eyes of Horus Speak of Jesus
Jesus Christ of Two Crowns
The Double Crown of Horus
Horus, King of the Universe
Potiphar, Son of Horus
Jesus: From Lamb to Ram
Who Were the Horites?
Royal Babies
The Horite Ancestry of Jesus Christ;
Samuel's Horite Family
Moses' Horite Family
The Horite Marriage and Ascendancy Pattern

Human Origins
A Flawed Paradigm
Is Scientific Dating of Fossils Reliable?
Genesis on Human Origins
The Making of Man
Denisovan Finds Create a Stir
Overview of Human Origins
Genesis: Is It Really About Human Origins?
Q and A on Creation vs Evolution
Genesis and Genetics

Image of God (Imago Dei)
Made in the Image of the King
Fr Hopko on the Image and Likeness of God
Evolution and Imago Dei by Sy Garte

Isaac (Yitzak)
Isaac's Wealth
Isaac's Second Marriage
Isaac's Three Sons
Isaac's Horite Descendants
Patrick Reardon on the Binding of Isaac
What Abraham Learned on Mt. Moriah
Some Jews and Arabs Have Horite Blood

Ishmael
Ishmael was NOT Abraham's Firstborn Son
Sent-Away Sons

Islam
A Muslim Calls on the God of Abraham
Mohammed and the Descendants of Cain
The Dedanites and Old Arabic
The Alignment of the Oldest Mosques

Israelites
Palestine and Israel. Historical Notes by W.M. Flinders Petrie [1853-1942]
Abraham and Moses: Different Origins of Israel?
The Myth of Israel's Dual Origins
Abraham and Moses Prefigure Jesus Christ
Israel's God is the God of the Horites
Genesis and Israel's Land Claim
Rabbi Simon Altaf on the Israelites

Jacob
Jacob's Journeys
Jacob Leaves Beersheba
Jacob's Blood and Betrayal
Why Rachel Didn't Trust Laban
Teraphim: Idols or Ancestor Figurines?

Japan
Holy Theophany Orthodox Church in Japan
The Nile-Japan Ainu Connection

Japheth
Where Dwelleth Japheth

Jebusites
The Jebusites Unveiled
The Jebu, Sheba, Joktan Confederation
The Priestly Order of Melchizedek

Jesus Christ (Yeshua, Yashuah)
The Son of God
Jesus Fulfills the Edenic Promise
The Maleness of Jesus
From Cain to Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ in Genesis
The Horite Ancestry of Jesus Christ
Tracing Christ's Kushite Ancestors
Did Jesus Have a Wife?
The Pure One
The MSNBC Spin on Jesus
The Black Messiah
The Christ in Nilotic Mythology
The King is Risen
Jesus: From Lamb to Ram
God With Us
One Greater Than Moses
Jesus Christ's Resurrection in Genesis
Gender Reversal and Sacred Mystery
Jesus Christ of Two Crowns
Christ as Alpha and Omega

John, the Forerunner
Jesus' Baptism by John at Nimrah
The Relationship of John the Baptist and Jesus Messiah

Joktan (Yaqtan)
Abraham's First-born Son
Evidence that Yaqtan was Abraham's firstborn Son
Confederation of Sheba, Jebu and Joktan
Why Jesus Visited Tyre

Joseph (Yosef)
Joseph and Judah as Instruments of Deliverance
Did Joseph Serve King Horemheb?
The Enigma of Joseph
The Unveiling of Joseph
Such a God as This
Elie Wiesel on Joseph
Potiphar, Son of Horus

Judaica
The Myth of Israel's Dual Origins
Are Rabbinic Interpretations of the Bible Accurate?
Messianic Jews and the Antecedents of Judaism
Some Jews and Arabs Have Common Horite Ancestry
The Talmud vs The Doctrine of the Lord

Just Genesis
Where I'm Going with JUST GENESIS
Celebrating 10 years!
Welcome to New Readers of JUST GENESIS
JUST GENESIS: Seven Year Anniversary
Why a Blog About Genesis?
Where to Begin Processing Material at JUST GENESIS
Thoughts on Blogging
The Apostle Paul: Rules for Blogging
Another Resource for Readers of JUST GENESIS

Kemuel
Abraham's Nephews and Nieces
Kemuel, Father of Aram the Younger

Kenites
The Kenite-Horite Connection
Mohammed and the Kenites
Documents, Sources and God's Purpose

Keturah
Keturah: Wife or Concubine
Women at a Well
Speiser Recognized the Two-Wife Pattern

Kingdom Builders
Dispersion of the Ruler-Priests
The Mighty Men of Old
Genesis on the Ancient Kingdom Builders
Religion of the Archaic Rulers

Kingdom of God
The Kingdom of God in Genesis
Yes, Georgia, There is a Kingdom
Does the Kingdom Have a Caste System?

Kinship
The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Part 1: Are Feminists Right?)
The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Part 2: Descent)
The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Part 3: Right of Inheritance)
The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Part 4: Right of Rule)
The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Part 5: Residence)
The Social Structure of the Biblical Hebrew (Part 6: Governance)
The Horite Marriage and Ascendancy Pattern
Denying Marriage: A cunning royal strategy
A Chief Must Have More Than One Wife
The Pattern of Two Wives
What is Kinship?
Answers to Recent Questions
Speiser Recognized the Two-Wife Pattern
Analysis of the Genesis 4 and 5 King Lists
Lamech Segment Analysis
The Cousin Bride's Naming Prerogative
Abraham's First-born Son
The Genesis King Lists

Kushites (Cushites)
Who Were the Kushites?
Kushite Shrines
Monuments of the Ancient Kushites
Kushites in Mindanao
Kushite Gold
Kushite Diversity and Unity
The Kushite-Kushan Connection
The Kushite Marriage Pattern Drove Kushite Expansion
Kushite Kings and the Kingdom of God
Morkot's Book Might Have Been Stronger
Were the Natufians Kushites?
Moses' Kushite Wife
Kushite Wives
The Migration of Abraham's Kushite Ancestors
DNA Confirms Kushite Migration

Laban
Why Rachel Didn't Trust Laban

Lamech
Analysis of the Genesis 4 and 5 King Lists
John Chrysostom's Interpretation of Lamech's Speech
Lamech Segment Analysis
Lamech's Story and Horite Kinship
Methuselah's Wife (The daughter of Lamech the Elder)
Life Spans of Lamech and Methuselah

Law Codes
Abraham's Authority and Ancient Law Codes
The Law of Tehut
The Papyrus of Ani
Ancient Moral Codes

Leah
Why Rachel Didn't Trust Laban

Levarite Marriage Law
Mother's House and Father's House
Tamar and the Theme of Two Sons

Lilith
The Myth of Lilith

Linguistics
The Nile and Tigris Linguistically Connected
Phoneme Study Pinpoints Origin of Modern Languages
The Beginnings of Spoken Language
Navajo and Ket are Cognate Languages
Ket-Navajo Connection is Old News
Hausa and Ancient Egyptian
The Afro-Asiatic Dominion

Lot
Lot's Story
Lot's Daughters
Abraham's Intercession for Lot

Mary, Theotokos
Was the Virgin Mary a Dedicated Royal Daughter?
The Virgin Mary's Ancestry
The Daughters of Priests
The Bible as Woman's Story
Mary, the Mound, and the Bread of Life
God's Word Never Fails
Mary Hated Even in Her Repose
Freud and the Virgin Mary

Medicine
Nubians Used Antibiotics
Ebers Papyrus
Neolithic Medical Care
Dental Health of Ancient Sudanese
Archaic Humans Used Plants Medicinally

Melchizedek
Melchizedek: His Lineage
The Priestly Order of Melchizedek
The Jebusites Unveiled

Messianic Faith
The Faith of the Fathers is Our Faith
Antiquity of the Messianic Faith Along the Orontes
What Abraham Discovered on Mount Moriah
The Question of Immortality
Archaic Rulers, Ascendancy, and the Foreshadowing of Christ
Burial Practices of the Rulers of Old
The Proto-Gospel

Methuselah
Methuselah's Age
Methuselah's Wife
St. Jerome on Methuselah
The Life Spans of Methuselah and Lamech

Migration and Human Populations
Was Earth Repopulated After Noah's Flood?
Crete Finds Confirm Migration Out of Africa
Migration of Abraham's Kushite Ancestors
Noah's Sons and Their Descendants
DNA Confirms Kushite Migration

Monastic Views on Genesis
St Anthony the Great on Creation
Abuna Elia Reflects on Genesis
St Jerome on Genesis
Elder Joseph on Adam and Eve
St Ephrem on Creation
Fr Seraphim Rose on Genesis

Monuments
Why Nekhen is Anthropologically significant
Was the Giza Sphinx a Recumbent Lion?
Orientations of Nilo-Saharan Monuments
Chisel from Herod's Foundation Wall

Moses
Moses' Wives and Brothers
Moses' Two Wives
Moses and Abraham Prefigure Christ
One Greater Than Moses
Moses and Abraham: Different Origins of Israel?

Mountains
Sacred Mountains
Mount Moriah
Horite Territory
Mount Mary and the Origins of Life
Peaks and Valleys
The High Places

Naamah
Methuselah's Wife
Analysis of the Genesis 4 and 5 King Lists

Nahor
Is Nehesi the Biblical Name Nahor?
Nahor's Sons
Nahor and His Descendants

Natufians
Natufian Culture
Natufian Bread Baking

Nephilim
Nephilim: Angels or Ancestors?
UFOs in Genesis?

Nilotic Religion
Nilotic vs Aryan Religion: The Horse as Example
The Christ in Nilotic Mythology
Nilotic-Kushitic Celestial Archetypes
African Religion Predates Hinduism
The Saharan Origin of Pharaonic Egypt
The Ornaments and Rites of Nubia

Noah
Noah's Ark
Debunked Claims of the Ark's Discovery
As in the Days of Noah
Was Noah Mesopotamian or Proto-Saharan?
Noah's Homeland
Noah's Flood: Where and When?
Answers to High Schoolers' Questions About the Flood
Saving Noah
Was Earth Repopulated After Noah's Flood?
Noah's Descendants
Noah's Sons and Their Descendants
Noah's Birds
Noah's Dog
Forty Days and Forty Nights
Noah: The Hollywood Version

Nimrod
Nimrod: Afro-Asiatic Kingdon Builder
Nimrod: A Tall Tale
Before Alexander the Great There was Nimrod
Was Genghis Khan the Last Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Builder?

Number Symbolism
Numbers and the Kingdom of God
Number Symbolism in the Bible
Afro-Arabian Number System
Number Symbolism in Revelation
The Nine Divine Utterances
Methuselah's Real Age
Forty Days and Forty Nights

Nubia
Nubia in Biblical History
The Nubian Context of YHWH
Nubian Captives
Huge Nubian City
Terah's Nubian Ancestors
Monuments of the Ancient Kushites

Order of Creation
Hierarchy in Creation: The Biblical View
Plato and Intelligent Design
Reality is Cross-Shaped
Thomas Hobbes on Orders of Creation

Patriarchy
The Question of Patriarchy
The Paradox of Feminism

Peleg
Peleg: Time of Division
Noah's Sons and Their Descendants
Why Rachel Didn't Trust Laban

Polygenism/Monogenism
A Reader Asks about Polygenesis
"First People" at Genetic Center

Polygyny (multiple wives)
Polygyny Among Rulers of Abraham's People
Teraphim: Idols or Ancestor Figurines?
Polygyny: Silent Social Challenge

Priesthood
The Priesthood is About the Blood
Blood Guilt and Christ's Priesthood
Priests, Shamans and Prophets
What is a Priest?
God as Male Priest
Women Priests and the Anglican Church of North America
Luther Was Wrong About the Priesthood
C.S. Lewis on Women Priests
Women Priests: History and Theology by Patrick Henry Reardon
The Question of Women Priests Must be Addressed
More Thoughts on the Priesthood
Rethinking "Biblical Equality"
Why Women Were Never Priests
What's Lost When Women Serve as Priests?
Some Thoughts on Women Priests
The Messianic Priesthood of Jesus
The Royal Priest Lines of Matthew
The Priesthood and Genesis
The Priesthood as Heavenly Ordinance
The Horite Priesthood
Males as Spiritual Leaders: Two Patterns
Shamanic Practice and the Priesthood
Female Shamans, Not Women Priests
What is a Presbyter?
Ideologies Opposed to Holy Tradition
What is Holy Tradition?
The Spread of the Afro-Asiatic Worldview
The Priestly Divisions
Genesis and the Eucharist
Passing Conversation with Priestess Kaeton

Prophecy/Prophets
The Prophetess Anna
God With Us
God's Word Never Fails
Prophecy in Historical Perspective

Pyramids
Pyramids and Mounds Galore!
Newly Discovered Pyramid Predates Noah
The Pyramids of Bosnia
17 Undiscovered Pyramids Seen from Space
Twin Pyramids and Sphinx in Zinder
More Pyramids in Sudan
Kushan Pyramids in China

Rabbis on Genesis
Rabbi Hirsch on 'The Nations'
Rabbi Kaduri
Rabbi (St.) Paul on Genesis

Race/Racism
Seligman's Legacy
The Bible and the Question of Race
About Race, Human Populations, and the Purpose of Mankind

Rachel
Why Rachel Didn't Trust Laban
Women at a Well
Teraphim: Idols or Ancestor Figurines?
Grasping at Mandrakes

Resurrection
The King is Risen
Christ's Resurrection in Genesis
Of Dung Beetles and Red Herrings
Resurrection as Mirrored Reality
Genesis and the True Meaning of Christmas
Matthew's Testimony Concerning the Empty Tomb
Righteous Rulers and the Resurrection

Rivers
Swelling of Sun and River Speaks of God
The Rivers of Eden

Rulers/Ruling Priests
Women Rulers in Ancient Israel
Rulers of the Ancient World
Royal Treaties
Ruler-Priests and the Biblical Worldview
Who Were the Horites?
Royal Names in Genesis
Female Shamans, Not Women Priests

Sarah
Sarah's Story
Sarah's People
Sarah's Laughter

Sacred Center (Biblical Theology)
The Sacred Center in Biblical Theology
Analysis of the Flood Story
Sons Who Stayed Home
Sent-Away Sons

Science and Religion
Support the ASA and CWIS
The Problem with Gould's NOMA
Jesuit Astronomer on Science and Religion

Serpent
Serpent Symbolism
Answers to Questions About the Serpent in Genesis
The Cosmic Serpent Exposed
The Amorites and Serpent Veneration
The Dragon and the Beast of Revelation
What Happened in the Garden?
The Serpent from Africa to India
The Serpent of Eden

Seth (Set)
The Ruler Seth
The Kingdoms of Cain and Seth
The Descendants of Cain and Seth
Analysis of the Genesis 4 and 5 King List
Seth's First-born Son
Symbols of Authority Linked to Seth and Cain
Using Animal Totems to Trace Ancestry

Sex
Some Thoughts on Sex
More Questions About Sex
Genesis on Homosex: Beyond Sodom

Sheba
7000 BC Horse Burial Linked to Sheba
Sheba and East African Settlements Linked
The Nigerian Boundary of the Jebu-Sheba-Joktan Confederation

Shechem
The Shechem Abraham Never Knew

Shem
Lines of Ham and Shem Intermarried
The God of Shem is the God of Ham

Sheol
Sheol and the Second Death

Shrines and Temples
Monuments of the Ancient Kushites
The Shrine City of Nekhen
Sun Cities of the Ancient World
Prehistoric Obelisk Found in Judah
Joseph and the Temple at Heliopolis
The Destruction of Hazor: Another Theory
Wells and Brides
Daughters of Priests
Women at Wells
Horite Temples
Orientations of Nilo-Saharan Monuments

Sudan
17 Undiscovered Pyramids Seen from Space
3000 B.C. Rock Carvings in Sudan
Twin Pyramids and Sphinx in Zinder
Nilo-Saharan and Saharo-Nubian Populations

Sun/Solar Imagery
The Brentford Shard: Chi Rho or Solar Symbol?
A Tent for the Sun
Solar Imagery of the Proto-Gospel
The Sun and Moon in Genesis
Sun Symbolism and Blood Guilt
African Religion Predates Hinduism
The Bull Head in Antiquity
Sun and a Tree of Life Among Magyar

Tamar
The Biblical Theme of Two Sons
Daughters of Priests
The Religion of Tamar of Timna

Technologies
Genesis and the Stone Age
The Tool Makers of Kathu
500,000 Year Engraved Shell
Silk Production 8000 Years Ago
Time Devices
32,000 Year Old Flour Processing Plant
77,000 Year Old Mattress
70,000 Year Old Python Stone
80,000 Year Old Mining Operations

Terah
Terah Means "Priest"
Terah's Nubian Ancestors
Abraham's Annu Ancestors
Was Terah an Idol Worshipper?

Teraphim
The Teraphim: Idols or Ancestor Figurines?
Why Rachel Didn't Trust Laban

Three-clan Confederations
Isaac's Three Sons
The Horite Confederation of Uz, Buz and Huz
Three Clan Confederations to Twelve Clan Confederations
Nigerian Boundary of Sheba, Jebu and Joktan
Og, Gog and Magog

Totems
Totems and Tracing the Horites in History
Using Totems to Trace Ancestry and Marriage Ties

Tower of Babel
The Confusion of Languages

Trees
The Tree of Life
The Trees of Prophets
The Fig Tree in Biblical Symbolism
African Religion Predates Hinduism
What Happened to the Cedars of Lebanon?
The Biblical Theme of Two Sons
Cain and Abel Twins?

Two Wives
Horite Hebrew Rulers with Two Wives
The Pattern of Two Wives

Ur
Locating Biblical Ur
The Calling of Abraham

Violence
Does the Bible Advocate Genocide?
Understanding Violence in the Old Testament by Eric Jobe
Does the Bible Advocate Jihad?

Water Systems and Wells
The Chaotic Water
The Stirring of the Waters
The Jordan River
Water Systems Connected the Nile and Central Africa
When the Sahara Was Wet
Women at Wells
Wells and Brides
The Blessing of Waters
Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Building

Wine
Two Passovers and Two Drunken Fathers
Oldest Wine-Making Equipment
Genesis and the Eucharist
Wine Use in Antiquity

Wisdom in Genesis
Wisdom! Let Us Attend
Review of The Beginning of Wisdom: Reading Genesis by Leon Kass
Wisdom in Genesis
Wisdom Seeks to Understand
Ancient Seats of Wisdom

Women in Genesis
Eve's Sin
The Daughters of Priests
Who Was Oholibamah?
Keturah: Wife or Concubine?
Abraham's Canaanite Mother
The Bible as Woman's Study
Mother of Seven Sons
Women at a Well
Survey of Women in Genesis
Sarah's Story
Tamar: Mother of Twins
Response to Fr. Behr's Women Disciples of the Lord
Were Rachel and Leah Half-Sisters?

Written Communication in Antiquity
Early Written Signs
Symbols of Archaic Rock Shelters
Ancient Canaanite Inscriptions
Paleolithic Ostrich Eggshells
The Urheimat of the Canaanite Y
Thamudic Scripts
Yahu Seals
The Writing System of Menes, the First Law Giver
The World's Oldest Books
The Proto-Elamite Script
Canaanite Origins of the Alphabet
The Origins of Written Communication
The Writing of David's Realm

Zionism
Review of the New Christian Zionism
Does Political Zionism Align with the Bible?
Jerusalem Pilgrimage

Zipporah
Moses' Two Wives
Zipporah's Flint Knife