Sunday, January 6, 2019

A Woman at a Well

Alice C. Linsley

Archaeologists have found many images of women at wells in Palestine and Syria. Below is a detail of the baptistery painting form Deir ex-Zor in Syria. Some believe that this may be an image of the Virgin Mary. However, it more likely is an image of Photini, the Samaritan woman who Jesus spoke to at Jacob's well.

Photini was and is esteemed among Christians. She was the first evangelist and tradition holds that she and her children were martyred in Carthage. In the Eastern Church, Photini is regarded as "equal to the Apostles."

Credit: Tony De Camillo/Yale University Art Gallery

In the Bible brides are often met at wells. In this sense, Photini represents the Bride of Christ, the Church and points to the Wedding Feast of the Lamb when Christ returns.

Many biblical figures met their future wives at wells. Abraham met Keturah, his cousin wife, at the Well of Sheba, where she resided. Moses met his cousin wife Zipporah at a well in Midian. 

Likewise, Abraham's servant found Isaac a wife at a well. Caesarius of Arles spoke of this in one of his sermons. 
“Therefore blessed Jacob, as you have heard, went into Mesopotamia to take a wife. When he had come to a certain well, he saw Rachel coming with her father's sheep - after he recognized her as his cousin, he kissed her as soon as the flock was supplied with water. If you notice carefully, brothers, you can recognize that it was not without reason that the holy patriarchs found their wives at wells or fountains. If this had happened only once, someone might say it was accidental and not for some definite reason. Blessed Rebekah who was to be united to blessed Isaac was found at the well; Rachel whom blessed Jacob was to marry was recognized at the well; Zipporah who was joined to Moses was found at the well.” (Sermon 88:1)

The list of ruler-priests daughters who were first approached at wells includes:  Keturah, Rebekah, Rachel and Zipporah, Asenath, and Tamar. All these women grew up around shrines where their fathers served as priests. Asenath’s father was a priest of the Egyptian shrine at Heliopolis on the Nile. Zipporah’s father was a priest of a shrine in the Negev. Tamar’s father is identified in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan as the priest Shem of Melchizedek. This explains why Tamar was to be stoned to death. According to Leviticus 21:9, a priest's daughter guilty of prostitution or adultery was to be executed by this means.

These daughters of priests were women of high rank but they did not live pampered lives. Zipporah was drawing water for her father’s livestock when she met Moses. Rebekah was likewise engaged when Abraham’s servant arrived to contract a marriage between her and Isaac.

Note that most of these priestly daughters had two sons:

Rebekah - Esau (oldest) and Jacob (youngest)
Rachel - Joseph (oldest) and Benjamin (youngest)
Zipporah - Gershom (oldest) and Eliezer (youngest)
Asenath - Manasseh (oldest) and Ephraim (youngest)
Tamar - Zerah (oldest) and Perez (youngest)

Often the younger son receives a position of priority or a familial blessing. Both sons are ancestors of Messiah, however, since the Horite Hebrew lines intermarried. We find this preference for the youngest son in the stories of Abraham and David. Both were Horite Hebrew rulers.

Let’s take a closer look at each of these women.

Keturah, Abraham’s Cousin Wife
Keturah resided at the Well of Sheba (Beersheba) where Abraham went to take her as his cousin wife. She was the daughter of the priest Joktan. According to the cousin bride’s naming prerogative, she named their first-born son Joktan after her father. She bore Abraham six sons. Her son Midian is the ancestor of Zipporah who married Moses.

Rebekah, Isaac’s Cousin Wife

Rebekah's father was Bethuel. Bethuel was Abraham’s nephew, the son of his brother Nahor who ruled over Terah’s territory called Aramea. His name means "House of God" and likely refers to his shrine. Bethuel of Paddan-Aram or Aramathea was a "brother" of the tribal unit designated Huz, Uz, Buz. According to Genesis 22:20-22, Buz was one of Abraham’s nephews. Job was a “son” of Uz (Job 1:1).

Rachel, Jacob’s Cousin Wife

Rachel was Jacob's cousin wife.She was of the clan of Laban. It is likely that she and Leah were half-sisters. Jacob met her while she was drawing water at the well. She bore him two sons, both of whom are significant ancestors of Jesus Messiah. The oldest son, Joseph, married Asenath, the daughter of a priest of Heliopolis, the most prestigious shrine city on the Nile at that time.

Asenath, Joseph’s Egyptian wife

Asenath bore Joseph two sons: Manasseh and Ephraim. Ephraim, the younger son, was tagged as an ancestor of the Jesus, God’s Son. Asenath's name means “holy to Anath”. Anath was an Afro-Asiatic goddess who was sometimes called Mari-Anath, the consort of the high God. Many water shrines were dedicated to her and women came to these shrines to ask the Deity for children or to ask for healing (compare to John 5).

Zipporah, Moses’ Midianite Wife

Zipporah was Moses’ wife and a daughter of Jethro, Priest of Midian. Her name is derived from the word ציפור (tsipor, meaning “bird”). Moses met her at a well where she and the other women were being harassed by Egyptians. She bore Moses two sons: Gershom and Eliezer. The younger son was Eliezer, whose name means "God is my help”, is tagged as the ancestor of Jesus, the Son of God. Jacob gives the blessing reserved for the firstborn to Ephraim (Gen 48). Ephraim's descendants inhabited the principal Canaanite settlements, including Baal-shalisha which means the Three-God or the God associated with the number three.

In 1 Chronicles 23:17, we read about Eliezer’s descendants: "Rehabiah was the first. Eliezer had no other sons, but the sons of Rehabiah were very numerous.” Note that the name of Eliezer's only son is a variant of the name Rehab. Rehab, who dwelt in Jericho, was another ancestor of Jesus Christ.

In 1 Chronicles 23:17, we read about Eliezer’s descendants: "Rehabiah was the first. Eliezer had no other sons, but the sons of Rehabiah were very numerous.” Note that the name of Eliezer's only son is a variant of the name Rehab. Rehab, who dwelt in Jericho, was another ancestor of Jesus Christ.

Rahab helped Joshua and Caleb to capture the city of Jericho. She lowered the spies from a window and tied a scarlet cord from the window to protect her household when the Israelites attacked. The scarlet cord, like the blood of the lamb on the doorposts in Egypt, is a sign of the Blood of Jesus.

Tamar, Mother of Twins

Tamar was Judah’s daughter-in-law who bore him twin sons after he had intercourse with her at a shrine. Possibly this was the shrine of her "father's house" to which she was sent by Judah when he refused to provide her another of his sons as levir. [2]

Tamar's name means date nut palm. The tamar was a symbol of fertility. Judah praised Tamar as "more righteous” than himself (Gen. 38:26) because she found fulfilled the levirate law when he failed to do so. The younger of Tamar's two sons was Perez, is tagged as an ancestor of Jesus Christ. The book of Ruth tells us that King David is a descendant of Abraham through Perez.

The Pattern in the New Testament

In the New Testament, we find the pattern with Photini, the Samaritan Woman at Jacob’s well. According to Tradition her name is Photini and she symbolizes the Church, the "Bride of Christ". The well represents refreshment and a place of ritual cleansing, like baptism. Caesarius of Arles explains that Isaac, Jacob and Moses are types of Jesus Christ, "for this reason they found their wives at wells, because Christ was to find His church at the waters of baptism."

Mary's father was Joachim and tradition tells us that he was both a priest and a shepherd. This meant that he would have needed a well or river to water his flocks. Mary's husband was Joseph of Bethlehem [3], the city of David. According to 2 Samuel 24, David built an altar at the threshing floor of Araunah, the Jebusite. Here the shepherd David is shown as a priest, the dual roles that characterize the ruler-priests whose patrilineal lines intermarried, bringing us to the house of Joachim, Mary's father, who was both priest and shepherd.

Widows attached themselves to shrines and temples once their husbands have died. This is what happened in the case of the Prophetess Anna (Luke 2:36-38). She had been living in the temple precincts for many years when Mary brought Jesus to the temple. She beheld the Christ child and proclaimed to all the appearing of Messiah.

The Pattern Observed Today

Priest daughters, widows and indentured virgins lived at temples and shrines throughout the Afro-Asiatic Dominion. The custom is observed even today in Africa and in India, the western and eastern ends of the ancient Afro-Asiatic Dominion. To understand Canaanite shrines, we do well to investigate its counterparts in West Africa and India.

Osofo Ahadzi explains that women consult deities at the water shrines in order to have children. These children are often pledged to the shrine or to the deity (as Hannah pledged Samuel to God in return for blessing her with a child). Ahadzi says that people who fail to redeem such pledges eventually lose those children.

The same practice is evident at Hindu temples. Dr. Shabhash C. Sharma writes, "Regarding the treatment of people (including the young girls and widows) in shelters, temples and orphanages, Hinduism is quite emphatic in its opposition to any abuse and exploitation at the hands of those in positions of power and authority: 'He, who betrays one who has sought refuge, will meet destruction. The very earth will not let the seed that he sows, sprout.' The Mahabarata (1, p. 181).

Dr. Sharma further explains: "Sometimes even if the parents of a young girl or boy are alive, they might not be in a good socio-economic condition to take care of their kid and thus could decide to send her/him to live in a temple thinking that the temple would do a better job in raising their child. Thus the temple might be considered by some people an ideal place to raise their child where free room, board and education (in spirituality, arts, music, dancing etc.) are available, perhaps in return for a small or light physical (manual) service (work) to the temple."

Dr Sharma explains: "The same type of consideration, as indicated above for young girls, is generally applicable to adult women, especially the widows, when they decide to live in temples and religious places like Vrindavan. Note that even though the widows living in such places (temples etc.) might number in several thousand they still represent an extremely small minority relative to millions of Indian widows..."


1. While it seems that most of the stories of conflict between brothers involve two brothers, there is always the larger picture to consider which often involves a third brother.  For example:  Abel is killed and Seth is his replacement. Abraham's older brother Haran is said to have died in Ur. Usually one of the three sons is less well known, dies, or even hidden in the text. This is the case with the three brothers Magog, Og and Gog. We have to hunt to find Og, because this third brother is hidden in the text. We note the persistence of the pattern of three sons here:

Gen. 4 - Cain, Abel, Seth
Gen. 4 - Jubal, Jabal, Tubal
Gen. 7 - Ham, Shem, Japheth
Gen. 11 - Haran, Nahor, Abraham
Gen. 46 - Jimnah, Jishvah, Jishvi

Moses was one of three sons. His brothers Aaron and Korah were both priests. Korah was a direct descendant of Seir the Horite Hebrew ruler of Edom (Gen. 36)

It appears that the three sons formed a three-clan confederation. The same trait is found among the extant Jebusites. While there are two Jebu provinces, there are three brothers: Yoruba, Egba and Ketu. We find this same two kingdoms-three brother pattern in Genesis.

2. The practice of levirate marriage is very ancient. The term is derived from the Latin word levir, meaning "husband's brother". When a man died without a man heir, his widow was married to the next oldest son whose duty it was to produce a son for his dead brother.

3. Bethlehem was a Horite Hebrew town and the Horites and Jebusites shared common ancestors. I Chronicles 4:4 lists Hur (Hor) as the "father of Bethlehem".

Related reading: Wells and Brides; Where Abraham Spent His Old Age; The Daughters of Priests; The Two Brides of Christ; Three-Clan Confederations to Twelve Tribes

Friday, December 28, 2018

Horite Hebrew Expectation and the Star of Bethlehem

Alice C. Linsley

Sidereal astronomy is real science based on observation of the arrangement and movement of the fixed stars and planets. This science originated among Abraham's Nilotic (Kushite) ancestors who had recorded information about the fixed stars and clock-like motion of the planets and constellations for thousands of years. By 4245 BC, the priests of the Upper Nile had established a calendar based on the appearance of the star Sirius. Apparently, Nilotes had been tracking this star and connecting it to seasonal changes and agriculture for thousands of years. This is verified by the Priest Manetho who reported in his history (241 BC) that Nilotic Africans had been “star-gazing” as early as 40,000 years ago. Plato, who studied in Egypt, claimed that the Africans had been tracking the heavens for 10,000 years.

The ancient Egyptians shared the knowledge with the ancient Greeks. Plato claimed that the Africans had been tracking the heavens for 10,000 years. Plato studied with an Egyptian priest for 13 years and knew about Earth's Great Year, also called the "Platonic Year." This is the time of between 25,000 and 28,000 years that it takes for Earth to complete the cycle of axial precession. This precession was known to Plato who defined the "perfect year" as the return of the celestial bodies (planets) and the diurnal rotation of the fixed stars to their original positions.

The ancients were motivated to understand the celestial pattern because they believed that the order in creation was fixed by the Creator and they were concerned about trespassing boundaries or violating the order in creation. They believed "As in the heavens, so on earth."

Attorney Rick Larson spent many years researching the Star of Bethlehem and discovered that sidereal astronomy is real science, based on observation of the arrangement and movement of the fixed stars and planets. Watch Rick Larson's Star of Bethlehem as a Christmas treat to you and your family.

For the ancient Nilo-Saharans and Egyptians the stars in the constellation of Leo were especially important because the Nile rose when the Sun passed through the constellation of Leo. Therefore, they associated the arousal of the Lion with the arousal of the waters. The lion was the totem of the tribe of Judah. In Genesis 1, we read that the Spirit of God hovered over the watery deep at the beginning. In John's Gospel we are reminded that the Son was with the Father and the Spirit before the world was made and that all things were made through Him.

The Magi were sidereal astronomers who lived east of Israel, likely in Babylon or Persia. They were heirs of the same astronomical knowledge as the ancient Egyptians because they were from Judah, like Daniel and the others from Judah (Jews) who served as advisers to King Nebuchadnezzar. The people of Judah knew of the ancient Horite Hebrew prophecy concerning a Woman of their people who would bring forth the Seed/Son (Gen. 3:15). They also believed Messiah would be born of the royal house of David.

When the Magi appeared before Herod they were told that the King of the Jews was to be born in David's city, Bethlehem. I Chronicles 4:4 claims that Bethlehem was a Horite Hebrew town. Abraham and David were of the Horite Hebrew ruler-priest lines. Joseph and Mary, both descendants of Abraham and David, went there to register for the census.

The Magi were aware of God's promise concerning a King whose kingdom would endure through all the ages because reference to the Messianic promise of Psalm 145:13 is found repeatedly in Daniel. It punctuates the rise and fall of kingdoms and proclaims the coming of an eternal kingdom. As astronomers, the Magi recognized the singular event of Jupiter's triple spiral that brought it in close proximity to Regulus in the constellation Leo, the Lion. The Babylonians called Regulus Sharu, which means king. The word is related to the Persian word Shir, meaning lion.

In his translation of the eighth-century AD Syriac manuscript "The Revelation of the Magi," Brent Landau describes the Magi as those who “pray in silence,” and he proposes that they were a small group of monk-like mystics from a mythical land called Shir. However, there is no such place. Shir refers to the lion, the totem for the Horite Hebrew clans that resided in Judah. The Magi are the descendants of those who were deported. They held the received tradition concerning the coming of Messiah. This explains their recognition of the Messianic symbolism of the alignment of the King Planet and the King Star.

Using Starry Night, a software program that tracks celestial events at any time in history, Larson discovered that Jupiter, the King Planet met Regulus, the King Star at the beginning of the Jewish New Year in 3 BC. The conjunction of the King Planet and the King Star produced the appearance of an extraordinarily bright star. Larson believes this is when Gabriel announced to Mary that she was chosen to bear the Son of God. 

When Mary asked how this could be, the Angel explained that she would be "overshadowed," the very expression used by the Horite Hebrew to speak of conception of the divine Son by Hathor, the mother of Horus (Enki). She was believed to conceive by the overshadowing of the Sun, the symbol of the Creator. In Christian iconography, the Sun is usually replaced by the image of a dove hovering over Mary.

The Horite Hebrew commemorated the death and resurrection of Horus in a 5-day festival. As Plutarch noted in Isis and Osiris, 69, the first 3 days were marked by solemnity and mourning for the death of Horus. His death was commemorated by the planting of seeds of grain. On the third day, the 19th of Athyr, there was a joyful celebration of Horus’ rising to life. Jesus' third-day resurrection fulfilled that Horite Hebrew expectation.

Skeptics claim that Christians based the story of Jesus on the ancient myth of Horus. Christians have done a poor job of answering this ridiculous claim. It takes more faith to believe that Christianity is the Horus myth reworked than to accept that Abraham's ancestors were Horite Hebrew. This is why the Jews call their ancestors "Horim"  and this is what is revealed by analysis of the Genesis King Lists. The Horite Hebrew believed the promise made to their Edenic ancestors (Gen. 3:15) that a woman of their ruler-priest lines would bring forth the Son of God, the Messiah. This is the origin of Messianic expectation.

Related reading:  Ancient Wisdom, Science and Technology; Who Were the Wise Men?Mary's Ruler-Priest Lineage; Joseph's Relationship to Mary; Jesus Fulfills the Horus MythThe Christ in Nilotic Mythology; Frank Moore Cross: Israel's God is the God of the Horites

Friday, December 21, 2018

The Ethnicity of Abraham and David

Alice C. Linsley

Abraham, Moses, Samuel and David were all Horite Hebrew as evidenced by the common marriage and ascendancy pattern of their fathers. Analysis of the marriage and ascendancy structure of their families reveals the distinctive pattern of the Horite Hebrew ruler-priest caste.

The pattern of Moses' family is identical to that of the Nilo-Saharan rulers listed in Genesis 4, 5, 10 and 11, and to that of Abraham's father Terah and Samuel's father Elkanah."

David's father was a ruler-priest of the Horite Hebrew city of Bethlehem. It appears that all of these great men were Horites or Horim.

Jews call their ancestors "Horim" which is Horite in English Bibles. Abraham ruled in Edom, the land of the Biblical Horites. Other Horite rulers are listed in Genesis 36, including Seir the Horite, from whom Aram, Moses's father is descended.

At the time that Abraham lived there were no nations in the modern sense. There were peoples, clans, and castes. Ethnic identities aligned with the territorial chief. Jewish ethnicity, however, is figured through the Jewish mother.

Abraham's ethnicity was Kushite and his father was a ruler-priest descendant of Nimrod, a son of Kush. Nimrod was a sent-away son who became a mighty ruler in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. This is why we first meet Abraham in Ur, though his ancestors were cattle-herding Nilo-Saharans.

Abraham was another sent-away son whose territory extended on a north-south axis between his two wives Sarah and Keturah. Sarah resided in Hebron and Keturah lived in Beersheba. Abraham also dug wells in Gerar to the west and had a treaty with the ruler of that region. Likely he also had water rights at Engedi to the east. This means that Abraham's territory was entirely in the region know as ancient Edom. The Greeks called this region Idumea, meaning "land of red people."

Edom is named in the Bible as one of the ancient seats of wisdom. The wisdom of the Horites extended to medicine, astronomy, writing, commerce, navigation, natural sciences, and architecture. The 400-acre Edomite complex at Petra reflects Horite beliefs. This was the home of the red Nabateans. Naba or Nabu was the guardian of scribes and prophets. The cult of Nabu was introduced into Mesopotamia and Babylon by the Kushites. Kushite kings sometimes bore the name Nabu, as with Nabu-shum-libur, an early Kushite king in Babylon and Nabu-aplu-iddina. This is the origin of the Hebrew word nabi, meaning prophet.

The Horites were devotees of the Creator RA and his son Horus, born of Hathor who was divinely overshadowed. The Ra-Horus-Hathor narrative is a primitive form of the Gospel, or the Proto-Gospel about God the Father and the Son, and the miraculous conception of the Son of God by divine overshadowing.

From Abraham's Horite people receive a long-standing tradition concerning the Son or "Seed" of God (Gen. 3:15). The Horites are the direct ancestors of Jesus Christ (Matthew 1:1-17), and understanding their way of life and religious beliefs helps us to understand who Jesus is.

When someone asks about the ethnicity of a Biblical figure, they usually want to know about that person's appearance. The Bible tells us very little about the physical appearance of most Biblical persons. This is probably because people were less concerned about what we call "racial" distinctions. The genetic mix of the inhabitants of the ancient Afro-Asiatic world was extremely varied. There were black and red Nubians.

Red and black Nubians

The Egyptians were reddish-brown, dark brown and black.  The Edomites were lighter with dark wavy hair and a reddish skin tone. David is described as having a red skin tone, reflecting his connection to the Horite Hebrew of Edom (Genesis 36). The Ainu (Anu) were lighter with a reddish tone and some had green eyes. Ainu rulers wore beards.

Although both Abraham and David are portrayed in films and images as European or Middle Eastern Jews, neither was Jewish. Both lived before a people called "Jews" can be identified. Abraham lived between 980-1200 years before David and about 2200-2400 years before Jesus. (See Thoughts on Calculating the Dates of the Patriarchs.)

This Jewish writer, when asked if David was Jewish, defines Jewishness and then evades the question that must be answered. One is a Jew if his mother is Jewish or if he properly converts to Judaism. David was a Jew if his mother was, yet strangely the Bible is silent about David's mother. According to the Talmud her name was Nitzevet. The reason we find scant information about David's mother is because she wasn't a Jew. Judaism had not yet emerged as a separate religion. David's mother was a blood relative of Jesse (Yishai). She was either his half-sister or his patrilineal cousin.

Likewise, Abraham was a Jew if his mother was, yet the Bible describes Abraham as a Hebrew because Judaism did not yet exist. Again, the biblical texts tell us little about Abraham's mother. This is intriguing, given that the Jews are fastidious about genealogical records. We have reason to suspect that this information was withheld or deleted at a time after Abraham and David, probably by the Deuteronomist Historian who places great emphasis on Jewish racial purity.

Analysis of the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Horite Hebrew (shown above) reveals that Abraham's mother was the daughter of a great ruler named Nahor. This is Nahor the Elder. Nahor the Younger is Abraham's older brother who ruled Terah's territory after Terah's death. Abraham was a sent-away son to whom God delivered a kingdom in Edom.

The Horite Hebrew were a caste of ruler-priests who practiced endogamy. The Genesis text explains that Abraham and Sarah had the same father, but different mothers. Sarah was Abraham's half-sister. Keturah was his patrilineal cousin bride.

The Bible does not explicitly state the ethnicity of the mothers of Abraham and David. However, analysis of the genealogical data clarifies that they were both ancestors of Jesus Christ. Their people lived in expectation of the appearing of the Son of God, according to the promise that was made to their ancestors in Eden (Gen. 3:15). This points to the core family around which the tradition and expectation of the Son of God developed. Research on their identity makes it fairly certain that both women were of the Horite ruler-priest caste. Horite priests married the chaste daughters of Horite Hebrew priests who maintained shrines along rivers or at wells. This is why so many of the leading figures of the Bible meet their wives at wells.

The Horite priests have been traced back to the oldest know Horite shrine at Neken in the Nile valley. The Hebrew root for Horite or Horim is hr, and this is also a proper name. Hur was Moses' brother-in-law. Moses' family was also Horite, as evidenced by his father's marriage and ascendancy pattern. The name takes many forms including Hur, Haran, Harun (Aaron), Horomo, and Harwa. The Edomite rulers were Horites and the Edomite shrine city of Petra reflects Horite beliefs.

Kushite wives are found among the Horite Hebrew clans and many of the greatest figures of Biblical history married Kushite brides. Abraham and Moses did. Moses' first bride was his Kushite half-sister. Zipporah was his second wife and his patrilineal cousin.

David of Bethlehem

David was born about 1040 B.C. He was the eighth and youngest son of Jesse (Yishai). Jesse also held the title Nahash (2 Sam. 17:25). Nahash is linked etymologically to the word “snake” and to an Akkadian word meaning “magnificence.” Jesse was a Horite Hebrew shepherd-priest, as was Mary's father Joachim. Sacrificing priests kept sheep.

Jesse had a wife in Bethlehem, David's mother. The settlement of Bethlehem was originally known for the sacrifice of sheep and rams. The meat was distributed to the poor, which is why the settlement was originally called "House of Meat." This meaning is retained in the Arabic name for the town: bayt lahm. Jesse had at least twelve sons, probably by two wives.

The ruler-priests of Abraham's people maintained their two wives in separate households on a north-south axis. This is what is revealed by analysis of the kinship pattern of Genesis 4-5 and Genesis 11. I Chronicles 2:13-16 lists David’s siblings, but does not mention that some of these children may be the offspring of Jesse by two wives.

If Jesse followed the residency pattern of his ancestors, one wife resided in Bethlehem and the other resided in a Horite Hebrew settle to the north or south of Bethlehem. Probably David's mother was in Bethlehem and the other wife was probably in Hebron. This would explain why David was anointed first in Bethlehem and later anointed as king of Judah in Hebron (II Samuel 2:1-4).

We note also that before being anointed as the ruler, David had married two wives following the custom of his ruler-priest ancestors. This parallels Isaac's story, in which Abraham must find his son a second wife (Rebecca) before he dies so that Isaac may become the ruler over his territory.  Rebecca was Isaac's cousin bride. Isaac's half-sister bride would have been living in Beersheba, which is where the servant brings Rebecca to wed Isaac.

David's first two wives are likely a half-sister and a patrilineal cousin.  Ahinoam of Jezreel would have been his cousin bride, as Jezreel is just north of Hebron. Abigail of Carmel was probably his half-sister bride, as Carmel is south of Hebron. [3] She is probably the Abigail named as David's sister in I chronicles 2:16. She had married Nabal who refused to help David when he needed provisions for his men. 

Now the question arises as to the identity of David’s mother. What should this matter? Because according to the custom of Abraham’s people, ethnicity or bloodline is traced matrilineally. Even today Jewish Law defines a Jew as one of three things:

• Someone who is matrilineally descended from Jacob (Israel) by any of his wives
• Someone who has properly converted
• Someone who is matrilineally descended from a proper convert.

The first is the only definition that can be applied to Abraham and David since both men lived before the Babylonian Captivity which marks the beginning of Jewish identity, and among their people ethnicity was traced through the mothers. This being the case, the critical question is what was the ethnic identity of David's mother?

David's Mother

According to the Talmud (tractate Bava Batra 91a), David's mother was a daughter of Adael. Adael is the masculine equivalent of the name Adah. Adah was the wife of Lamech the Elder, and the mother of Jubal and Jabal (Genesis 4). This is also the name of one of Esau the Elder’s wives. So Adah and Adael is a family name traced back to the lines of Cain and Seth (which intermarried). Both versions of the name are traceable to the Kenites, the descendants of Cain who intermarried with Seth's line.  So David is kin to the Kenites. This explains why David sent the spoils of war to the cities of Judah and to the Kenites (1 Samuel 30:29).

We are familiar of the story of Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, who killed Sissera by driving a tent peg through his temple while he slept (Judges 4:21). Here we find a connection between the Kenites and the Hebrews. Heber means friend in Hebrew. The title was given to Abraham, the friend of God.

David's ancestry is traced through the following women: Tamar, the daughter of a priest. Tamar, the Righteous, tricked Judah into impregnating her. When Judah discovered that she was pregnant, he ordered that she be burned to death. This was the sentence for daughters of priests who committed adultery or harlotry. The Horite Hebrew, sometimes known as Khar/Korah, were ruler-priests who married chaste daughters of priests who ruled over shrines and temples at high elevations near permanent water sources.

Rahab of Jericho was the wife of Salmon the Horite, the Son of Hur (Hor). Salmon is called the "father of Bethlehem" in 1 Chronicles 2:54. Rahab became the grandmother of Boaz who married Ruth. Salmon (also Salma or Solomon) is a Horite name and is associated with Bethlehem (1 Chronicles 2:51).  The evidence concerning David's ethnicity points to Kenites and Horites who intermarried.

Abraham's Horite Hebrew Mother

In the ancient world shrines were places of rituals. Common rituals included baptisms or water cleansing; circumcision, and the removing of front teeth called nak or naak. Kar-nak means place of performing the removal of teeth, a practice found among the ancient Nilotes.

Abraham’s mother is not named in the Bible, but according to tradition she was the daughter of a priest associated with the Horite shrine of Karnach in ancient Nubia (Upper Nile). This is evident from the name of her father, called "Karnevo" in the Babylonian Talmud. Karnevo would have been a Horite Hebrew since the shrine of Karnach was dedicated to Horus, son of the Creator.

Another theory is that Abraham's maternal grandfather was the high priest of the shrine at Kar (mountain fortification) Nevo (Nebo). I find this theory the most compelling.

Related reading: Genesis in Anthropological PerspectiveEndogamy and Jewish IdentityThe Nilotic Origin of the AinuKushite Diversity and UnityWho Were the Horites?; Abraham's Horite Mother Challenge to Shaye Cohen's Portrayal of AbrahamMoses' Wives and Brothers

Friday, December 14, 2018

The Myth of Western Patriarchy

This illustrates the half truths circulated by Feminists. The big picture is quite different. The drama begins with Eve in the Garden and the New Paradise begins in the womb of Mary, the New Eve. Mary, the mother of Jesus Messiah, is the most honored woman in the world. She is honored in many religions other than Christianity.

In fact, the Feminist claim of universal patriarchy is a lie, or a convenient myth.

No, the structure of Western civilization is not patriarchal. Watch Jordan Peterson address this question.

Neither is the social structure of the biblical Hebrew patriarchal. This series breaks that down from the perspective of cultural anthropology.

Part 1 - Part 1 in this series addresses the Feminist claim that the biblical Hebrew had a patriarchal social structure. This unfounded assumption is the basis for attempts to justify the innovation of women priests. Since women were denied the opportunity to serve as priests among the patriarchal Hebrew the Church should ordain women to correct that social injustice.

Part 2 - Part 2 looks at the patterns of descent and shows that descent is is traced through both the paternal and maternal lines. A true patriarchy traces descent through the paternal line only. This is not a characteristic of the biblical Hebrew. Instead, they had a pattern of double descent. One expression of this is the twin entrance pillars of Solomon's temple. They are named Boaz and Jachin and the pillars commemorate Solomon's righteous ancestors on his maternal and paternal sides. Boaz was Solomon's great great grandfather on his father's side and Jachin was his great great grandfather on Bathsheba's side.

Part 3 - Part 3 considers inheritance and how rights of inheritance involve claims by both males and females. The inheritance laws among the biblical Hebrew are complex because the ruler had two first born sons. Provision was made for both sons to receive an inheritance. Additionally, grants were made to the sent-away sons of concubines. Daughters could petition to receive inheritance. By levirate marriage a widow was able to preserve her deceased husband's holdings for his son. In an extremely archaic practice, inheritance rights were attached to whoever had possession of the clan ancestor figurines. These were stolen by Rachel who knew that her husband Jacob (Israel) had no inheritance. If women did not inherit why did Rachel and Leah complain to Jacob, "Are we still likely to inherit anything form our father's estate? Does he not think of us as outsiders now?" (Gen. 31:14)
Part 4 - Part 4 looks at the right to rule. Feminists insist that the Hebrew woman's condition under Patriarchy is one of subjugation. Instead, we find strong, dignified, multi-talented, caring women who make a mark for themselves in the world. They invest wisely, oversee servants, and manage real estate. Some are so important that they are named in the Genesis king lists: Naamah, Anah and Oholibamah, are examples. Anah is called a "chief" in Genesis 36. Women also ruled as queens.

Part 5 - Part 5 explores the question of residence. The evidence of Scripture indicates that the biblical Hebrew had at least four residential arrangements: patrilocal, matrilocal, neolocal, and avunculocal. The residence of married couples depended on the social position of the groom. The residence of widows depended on their eligibility to remarry.

Part 6 - Part 6 looks at the question of governance. Do only men hold the reins of governmental authority? Decisions concerning governance were made by kings and queens. The Hebrew priests were in the service of these rulers. A Judean queen named Salome Alexandra ruled from BC 76-67. She was one of two women to exercise sole rule over Judea. Archaeologists have uncovered her palace in Jericho. Salome is the only woman mentioned in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Some of the religious reforms that shaped second-Temple Judaism were implemented under her rule.

Related reading: Are Feminists Correct About the Church?; How Feminist "Dambusters" destroyed the Church of England

Monday, December 3, 2018

Solar Symbolism Among the R1 Peoples

Alice C. Linsley

The evidence of artifacts indicates that solar symbolism was pervasive among the R1 peoples of Africa, Eurasia, Anatolia, Slovenia, ancient Gaul, and the British Isles. The Sun was a widely venerated sacred symbol of the High God and His Son.

Here is a description of Messiah as the "true sun" in Gildas' De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae:
Meanwhile, to the island stiff with frost and cold, and in a far distant corner of the earth, remote from the visible sun, He, the true sun, even Christ, first yields His rays, I mean His precepts. He spread, not only from the temporal firmament, but from the highest arc of heaven beyond all times, his bright gleam to the whole world in the latest days, as we know, of Tiberius Caesar. At that time the religion of Christ was propagated without any hindrance, because the emperor, contrary to the will of the senate, threatened with death informers against the soldiers of that same religion.

The Triglav obelisk of Slovenia appears to be a Messianic image. Here a God-Man is shown wearing the Sun as his crown. The term "Triglav" refers to the concept of a triune Presence, or Trinity. Among the Slavs this triune High God was called was Hromi Daba.

Another solar image found widely among the R1 peoples is the 6-prong rosette. It is seen below on one of these 9th century BC artifacts (coin on top right). This ancient symbol has been found from Ethiopia to England and from Pakistan to Galilee. It testifies to the importance of the Sun as a symbol of divine authority. The image was found among the Celts of the northern Iberian Peninsula.

The same image is found on Balkan pottery. Here it appears on 14th-15th century enameled terracotta tableware found at Studenica monastery complex in western Serbia. The rosette is sometimes called "Perun's flower."

The same symbol is found on this wooden entrance in Romania.

These two amulets were discovered in 1985 at the archaeological site of Mehrgarh in Balochistan, western Pakistan. The amulets date to the 3rd millennium B.C. and represent the wheel or solar chariot of the Supreme God.

This 6-prong star or rosette appears on ancient Jewish ossuaries. This was the solar boat of the Creator, the vehicle of Light that carries the dead to the place of rest until the Last Day.

Stone ossuary chest used for secondary burial of bones

The 2,000-year-old ossuary shown above belonged to a daughter of the Caiaphas family of high priests. It is marked with the 6 pointed star and has an Aramaic inscription that says, “Miriam Daughter of Yeshua Son of Caiaphas, Priests of Ma’aziah from Beth Imri.” The inscription dates to the time of the Second Temple.

The six prong star is also found on the ossuary of Joseph Caiaphas, the high priest (shown below).

The merkaba as chariot spokes within a circle appears to be an Iron Age version of Ra's solar boat. The Creator was believed to mount the sun as a chariot and ride the winds, making His circuit. This speaks about God's sovereignty over all the Earth.

It is likely that this same image appeared on the Ark of the Covenant. In the Ethiopian Church a replica of the Ark (called Tabot) is decorated at the center with the 6-prong star inside a circle.

The same image appears on a tomb at Banais, Israel, one of the sources of the Jordan river. There is a large cave and various archaeological sites with pools of water running beneath and large cliffs rising above.

The symbol appears on the top and sides of the Magdala Stone (below) which was found in the western shores of the Sea of Galilee in September 2009.

Here is another view of the Magdala Stone.

Related reading: Ossuary of Miriam, Daughter of Yeshua; A Tent for the Sun; Solar Imagery of the Proto-Gospel; Sun Symbolism and Blood Guilt; Horned Altars and Horned Sacred Vessels

Wednesday, September 26, 2018

Horned Altars and Horned Sacred Vessels

Horned altar found during excavations at Gath

Alice C. Linsley

The Hebrew ruler-priest clans of Genesis 4, 5, 10, 11, 25 and 36 intermarried. Abraham and his ruler-priest ancestors were a caste of priests who traced descent by both the maternal and paternal bloodlines. Their endogamous marriage practice means that these words should be taken literally: "For me you shall be a kingdom of priests, a holy nation." (Ex. 19:6). This is a historical reality that has been neglected by Bible scholars. The priesthood of old is the basis for the Church's priesthood and should not be generalized to all believers, as was done by the Reformer Martin Luther.

The Horite Hebrew dispersed widely in the service of the "mighty men of old" and the artifacts of their religion are found wherever they resided. These artifacts include ritual flint knives, metal and clay objects of ceremonial importance, and stone altars.

They practiced animal sacrifice on stone altars. In the Harappan culture the altars were temporary and often in the shape of a falcon, the totem of Horus. Horus was the son of Ra. Among the Akkadians he was called Enki and his father was called Ani. The Shulba Sutras state that "he who desires heaven is to construct a fire-altar in the form of a falcon."

At the Harappan water shrines of Kalibangan and Lothal, numerous fire altars have been discovered. The Dravidian word Har-appa means "Horus is father." The falcon was a symbol of divine kingship in hieroglyphs as early a 3000 BC. Here is further evidence of the spread of Horite Hebrew religion from the Nile Valley into India where the cow continues to be regarded as a sacred animal.

The horns of the cow were a sacred symbol for the Horite Hebrew. The horns represented the power of God. Both Joab and Adonijah found themselves on the losing side of a political struggle and fled to the LORD for protection, taking hold of the horns. It was an appeal for divine aid and mercy.

Abraham's Nilo-Saharan ancestors venerated their long-horn cows. The Y of the horns was regarded as a cradle for the Sun, and the Sun was the emblem of the creator and his son.

Hathor, the mother of Horus, is shown wearing a crown of cow horns in which the Sun rests. The Y indicated that the person was divinely overshadowed and this indicted that the person was appointed for service.

The Canaanite Y symbol designated a deified "son" of God, which is why it appears in the names of many Biblical rulers: Yaqtan (Joktan); Yishmael (Ishmael); Yishbak; Yitzak (Isaac); Yacob (Jacob); Yosef (Joseph); Yetro (Jethro); Yeshai (Jesse) and Yeshua (Joshua/Jesus). 

The Y-shaped headdress of the Somali nomads is called barki and refers to divine blessing upon the wearer. The word corresponds to the Hebrew word birka which is the blessing upon food, oil or wine or upon a person.

Many of the world's oldest coins show animals with horns. Alexander the Great had coins minted that showed him with the ram's horns on his head (show above). These speak of the divine appointment of the rulers for whom the coins and royal seals were made.

The ancient Nilotic Annu/Ainu were priests associated with the shrine at Heliopolis (Biblical On), one of the most prestigious of the ancient world. It was known a iunu, place of pillars, because the temples and shrines had many pillars.  The priests were called "Tera-neter," and Tera/Terah is the title held by Abraham's father.

Heliopolis is the Greek name and it means "City of the Sun." The Habiru served as priests at On. Joseph married a daughter of the priest of Heliopolis. It was an exceptionally prestigious shrine city in the ancient world. The pyramids at Giza, Abusir and Saqqara were aligned to the obelisk of On.

The ancient Sun temples were called O'piru. O'piru is a variant of Hapiru and Habiru, and all these reference an archaic priestly caste in ancient texts. The word Habiru is rendered "Hebrew" in English Bibles. 

In the ancient world, a temple was considered the mansion (hâît) or the house (pirû) of the deity. The shrines and temples had an east-facing entrance and the priests faced the rising Sun whenthey offered their prayers and oblations. The Sun was the emblem of the Creator among Abraham's ancestors, and it appears that the Habiru had dispersed widely by 14,000 B.C.

Tera is the Japanese word for priest and the evidence of artifacts, genetics and linguistics suggests a connection between the Annu of the Nile and the Ainu of Northern Japan and Okinawa. It is evident that these ancient peoples were sea-faring. The Ainu word for water is aka, which corresponds to asta, the Old Nubian word for water.

Study of the Ainu Micmac hieroglyphics in Vermont and the Eastern seaboard of Canada strike a blow to isolationist theories and reveals "ancient contact across great oceans."

The genetic mapping of Cavalli-Sforza indicates a pattern of expansion from the Sea of Japan towards eastern Asia. This came long after the expansion from Africa (100,000 and 70,000 years before the present).

The grandson of an Ainu elder living in Eastern Canada reports that not all the native people of North America came via the land bridge from Siberia. His Miqmaq people came via Scandinavia, a fact that has been confirmed by DNA studies (Haplogroup X2b5). This explains the common clothing style and decorative motifs and the close resemblance of the signs in the Ainu and Habiru/Hebrew scripts (shown above).

Jomon vessel dated to the Middle Period, (3000–2000 BC).
Jomon sacred horned vessel
3000–2000 BC 
Sailko/Wikimedia Commons
Nyland (2001) found that many place names and common objects in Hebrew are closely related to the proto-Saharan words. These would have been used by Abraham's Nilo-Saharan ancestors. In ancient Egyptian tera-ntr refers to a ruler-priest and among the Ainu tera means priest. Abraham's father was "Terah" and his ancestors were from the Upper Nile Valley.

Recent DNA studies reveal that the Ainu of Hokkaido and the Ryukyuans of Okinawa have a closer genetic affinity than either group has to the Japanese. It is likely that these populations which have practiced clan endogamy retain cultural and physical characteristics of the earlier Jomon who had dispersed throughout the various islands of Japan.

As the point of origin for the ancestors of the Jomon was the Nile Valley we would expect to find some common features in the artefacts of the descendants of the Nilotic Ainu and the Japanese Ainu.

The Jomon horned vessels of Japan are of special interest because they resemble the horned altars of Abraham's Horite ruler-priest caste. The vessel shown (right) would have had a ritual use.

The tree of life motif is found on the Jomon vessel (above) in Japan and the Iron Age horned altar (below) found in Israel. Other common motifs include serpents, solar boats, circles, and diagonal hatch marks. The diagonal marks are found on the world's oldest known human artifacts.

Altar Rehov Iron Age II, 10th century BCE Pottery H: 49; W: 32.7 cm Israel Antiquities Authority:

Jomon pottery has been found throughout the islands of the Japanese archipelago. Some pieces date as early as 14,000 BC. The Jomon and Ainu are probably related to the Nilotic Anu who moved out of Africa, beginning about 20,000 years ago.

The Asia-Africa connection is found in Y-DNA Haplogroup DE. DE is unique because it is distributed in several geographically distinct clusters. Immediate subclade, haplogroup D, is normally found only in eastern Asia, and the other immediate subclade, haplogroup E, is common in Africa, Europe, and the Middle East.

Tuesday, September 25, 2018

The Writing System of Menes

"Upon this first...rule of reason, that in order to learn you must desire to learn, and in so desiring not be satisfied with what you already incline to believe, there follows one corollary which itself deserves to be inscribed upon every wall of the city of philosophy: Do not block the way of inquiry."--Charles Sanders Peirce, 1896

Alice C. Linsley

In Abraham's time there were about 750 hieroglyphs. Only about 500 signs were commonly used. However in the time of Menes the first lawgiver, there may have been as many as 1000. Archaeology Magazine reported (1999) that the earliest Egyptian glyphs date to 3400 BC, the time of Menes, which challenges "the commonly held belief that early logographs, pictographic symbols representing a specific place, object, or quantity, first evolved into more complex phonetic symbols in Mesopotamia."

Menes was the first to unite the peoples of the Nile Valley. He is shown as the first in the procession of ancient lawgivers in the South Wall Frieze of the United States Supreme Court. His was called the Law of Tehut. Menes (c. 3200 BC) and the kings after him bore Horus names. They were Horite ruler-priests whose wisdom and skill was still remembered in the times of the Egyptian historian Manetho (3rd century BC) and the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC).

The word hiero-gylphs refers to the symbols used by priest scribes, an ancient world caste in service to the rulers. These appear to have been clans designated by the prefix Ar. Israelites associated by their names with the Ar patrimony include Aroch (1 Chr 7:39, Ezr 2:5, Neh 6:18, Neh 7:10) and Ariel (Ezr 8:16, Isa 29:1, Isa 29:1, Isa 29:2, Isa 29:2, Isa 29:7). Ariel means “Scribe/Messenger of God.” So it appears that the Ar clans were scribes or messengers. This is further suggested by the name Ar-vad. Vad means “to speak” in Sanskrit. The association of the name Ar with the scribal caste is further demonstrated by the discovery of Aramaic scrolls from Arsames, the satrap, to his Egyptian administrator Psamshek and to an Egyptian ruler named Nekht-Hor. (A.T. Olmstead, History of the Persian Empire, Chicago, 1948, pp.116-117)

Egyptian scribe
(c. 2494 to 2345 BC)

In 1999, C. Peust recognized the likelihood of an Old Nubian-Meroitic connection. He claimed that the Meroitic script was used to write two distinct languages, that of the Tanyideamani and Akinidad funerary stelae and that of the Kharamadoye inscription. Kharamadoye was the ruler representative of the Nubian deity called Ariteñ, perhaps the patron deity of scribes. Khar is a form of Har and refers to Horus.

Meroitic is an alphasyllabary script. It has signs for syllables consisting of consonants plus a and for initial vowels and syllables which have vowels other than the default a. This type of writing system is represented by various ancient scripts including Old Nubian, Old Persian cuneiform, Kharoshti (related to Aramaic), Brahmi, and Ethiopian Ge'ez.
When Jean-Francois Champollion deciphered hieroglyphs using the Rosetta Stone, he thought there were 864 different signs in total, but today it is thought that the earliest hieroglyphs numbered about 1,000. When Champollion deciphered hieroglyphs and hieratic, he matched the signs with the later Coptic writing and converted them into Coptic. Champollion was fluent in Coptic. He was then able to see if a Coptic word existed that was fairly similar to his ancient Egyptian word, and he could translate the word into French. This was not always accurate, because the Coptic or Ge'ez had changed.
Ancient Egyptian is a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Written records of the Egyptian language have been dated from about 3400 BC, making it one of the oldest recorded languages known, outside of Sumerian. Today the national language of Egypt is Egyptian Arabic, which replaced Coptic as the language of daily life after the Muslim conquest of Egypt. Memphitic or Bohairic Coptic is still the liturgical language of the Coptic Church. The Bohairic dialect originated in the western Nile Delta during the 3rd century A.D.
Egyptian has many biradical roots, in contrast to the Semitic preference for triradical roots. In this regard, Ancient Egyptian appears to be more archaic.