Thursday, February 7, 2019

Hagar's Conversion

Painting of Hagar in the wilderness by Giovanni Lanfranco. It hangs in the Musée du Louvre.

Alice C. Linsley

Hagar was the Egyptian handmaiden to Sarah, Abraham’s sister wife. She was also one of Abraham’s concubines. Though she is presented as a downtrodden slave, it is likely that Hagar was highly cultured and moved comfortably in the circle of nobles.

As the Horite Hebrew clans practiced endogamy, it is likely that Hagar was the daughter of a Horite Hebrew priest, and as such, she would have been a skilled attendant to Sarah, and even as a concubine, she would have been a woman of high social status.

Sarah’s resentment toward Hagar appears to have had a long history. Some of the resentment may have been cultural. Sarah was from the region of Aram in Mesopotamia while Hagar is identified as an Egyptian. Sarah's resentment toward Hagar became blind jealousy after Isaac was weaned, when Ishmael was about 15 years old.

Genesis portrays Hagar as having a complex personality. In later life she is a strong and independent woman, contracting marriage for her son and apparently producing other offspring known as the Hagarites. They are mentioned in Psalm 83:6. The core of this psalm is believed to pre-date David. The Hagarites are distinct from the Ishmaelites in the Psalm 83 listing of allies, so it is apparent that Hagar (like Anah and Oholibamah) was regarded as a clan chief.

This picture of Hagar as a mature clan chief differs from the picture presented in Genesis 16:5 where we are told that Hagar acted tactlessly toward her childless mistress. Sarah blamed Abraham for this and Abraham said to Sarah: “Your slave-girl is at your disposal. Treat her as you think fit” (Genesis 16:6). Sarah then abused Hagar who fled to a spring where Abraham had lived for a time (Genesis 20:1). The Angel of the Lord found her at the spring and prophesied concerning her son that his name should be Ishmael meaning God Hearkens, for God heard the cry of Hagar's affliction.

This story portrays Hagar as a tactless, abused runaway, but note how she has a personal encounter with the Lord at the water shrine! She knows that she has encountered the all-Seeing God because she declares that she has gone on seeing, even as she is seen (Genesis 16:14). The Angel of the Lord speaks in the first-person, and in verse 13 Hagar identifies the visitor as God. To me, this sounds like a conversion story.

Given the times in which Hagar lived, she would have run to a place where she felt she could provide for her son. She traveled to a shrine half way between Kadesh and Bered (Genesis 16:14). In Genesis, when a water system is identified as being along a road between two towns, it is a shrine to which a priest is attached. It is likely that Hagar had family there. Since this was Horite Hebrew territory, an Egyptian priest (Harwa) at a water shrine would have been a Horite priest.

Horite territory extended north-south at least between Mount Hor (above Kadesh-barnea) and Mt. Harun or Hor south of Oboth. According to Genesis 14: 6, Horite territory extended as far south as the wilderness of Paran (see map).

A temple dedicated to Hathor, the mother of Horus was discovered at the southwestern edge of Mt. Timna by Professor Beno Rothenberg of Hebrew University. This is the site of some of the world's oldest copper mines.

Horite priests were devotees of Horus, who was called “Son of God.” From ancient Egyptian texts we gather that Horus is equal to the Father in nature and glory. The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts and Pyramid Texts provide a great deal of information about Horus, the divine son of Ra. This is expressed in the Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. In the priest's prayer to the King, he says, "Horus is a soul and he recognizes his Father in you..." (Utterance 423).

In these texts Horus is described as the one who unites the peoples (the Upper and Lower Nile). This is symbolized by the double crown. The rulers of the two regions wore different crowns, but Horus was called "Horus of the Two Crowns" because he wore both. This is what stands behind the account of Yeshua/Joshua, the priest, receiving the "crowns" in Zechariah 6:11: "Take the silver and gold, and make crowns, and set it upon the head of Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest..."

A reference to the third day resurrection is found in the Pyramid Texts: "Oh Horus, this hour of the morning, of this third day is come, when thou surely passeth on to heaven, together with the stars, the imperishable stars." (Utterance 667)

Consider how Horus describes himself in the Coffin Texts (148):
I am Horus, the great Falcon upon the ramparts of the house of him of the hidden name. My flight has reached the horizon. I have passed by the gods of Nut. I have gone further than the gods of old. Even the most ancient bird could not equal my very first flight. I have removed my place beyond the powers of Set, the foe of my father Osiris. No other god could do what I have done. I have brought the ways of eternity to the twilight of the morning. I am unique in my flight. My wrath will be turned against the enemy of my father Osiris and I will put him beneath my feet in my name of ‘Red Cloak’.

This text is about 1000 years older than the words of Psalm 110:1, a clear messianic reference: The Lord says to my Lord: “Sit at My right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet."

Horus was expected to trample down the serpent. This expectation is expressed int he Pyramid Texts:
"Horus has shattered (tbb, crushed) the mouth of the serpent with the sole of his foot (tbw)" Utterance 388 (681).

This reference dates to about 800 years before Psalm 91: ""They will bear you up in their hands, That you do not strike your foot against a stone. You will tread upon the lion and cobra, The young lion and the serpent you will trample down."

Horus gives himself as mystic food of immortality. In The Pyramid Texts, dating from the beginning of the 4th Dynasty, we read: "O Hunger, do not come for me; go to the Abyss, depart to the flood! I am satisfied, I am not hungry because of this kmhw-bread of Horus which I have eaten." (Utterance 338) The Egyptian word km means to bring to an end, to complete, or fulfill, and hw refers to the heavenly temple or mansion of the firmament above.

It appears that the "kmhw-bread of Horus" is what the Church Fathers call "the bread of immortality." Concerning himself, Jesus said that "unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day" (John 6:53-54).

These are key elements of the Messianic Faith by which Messiah is identified.

Jesus Messiah is sometimes called “the Angel of the Lord.” Perhaps he met Hagar’s when she fled to the Horite shrine. Might Hagar's conversion be due to a personal encounter with the pre-incarnate Christ? 

This is how some Church Fathers see Hagar's visitation. He who is of one essence with the Father, “for in Him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily” (Col. 2:9) came into the world to save sinners like Hagar... like me.

Related reading: The Ra, Horus, Hathor Narrative; Righteous Rulers and the Resurrection; Hagar's Journeys

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Abraham's Horite Hebrew Ancestors

This diagram shows how the Hebrew lines of Ham and Shem intermarried. Note also that Nimrod's wife named her first born son Asshur, after her father, indicating that she was his cousin bride. This is called the "cousin bride's naming prerogative."

Alice C. Linsley

Abraham is a pivotal figure in the Bible. He is the father of many peoples, the icon of faith, and a sent away son to whom God delivered a kingdom.The Bible designates Abraham a Hebrew, but clearly he was not the first.

"Hebrew" is the English form of an ancient word Habiru, or Hapiru, or 'Apiru. The words Habiru and 'Apiru are found in Akkadian cuneiform texts before Abraham's time. The corresponding word in the Egyptian is pr - house or temple; pr-nfr - good house or house of rejuvenation; pr pn - this house, and prw - houses (cf. Dravidian Opiru - Sun House, shrine, or temple; Ugaritic upr - house; an pero - house, royal granary in the Apatani language of Pradesh, India).

After Abraham's time, the Harris Papyrus speaks of the 'Apriu of Re at Heliopolis (biblical On). Jacob's son Joseph married into this Horite Hebrew line.

The number seven was a sacred number for the Habiru and there may be a connection to the Nilotic Luo word for seven, which is abiriyo

The Horite Hebrew of Nekhen offered salutations to the rising Sun at their Sun piru/house. The Arabic yakburu means “he is getting big” and with the intensive active prefix: yukabbiru which means "he is enlarging." The Arabic expresses a linguistic relationship between the house/temple and the rising Sun.

The anthropological evidence suggests that the Hebrew were caste of priests who served the archaic kingdom builders, like the Kushite ruler Nimrod (Gen. 10). They served in the royal temples and shrines, held strictly to moral codes similar to the Decalogue, maintained ritual purity, practiced circumcision, and animal sacrifice on stone altars.

The Hebrew priest lines intermarried (endogamy). This preserved their blood lines and guarded their secrets. They were skilled in astronomy, medicine, stone work, metal work, and funerary practices such as mummification.

Before Abraham's time, the Hebrew priests had dispersed in the service of kingdom builders. The data of Genesis 4-12 presents the dispersion of the early kingdom builders out of Africa. Nimrod, an ancestor of Abraham, is an example. Genesis 10 tells us that he was a Kushite kingdom builder. The religion observed in the territories of the Kushite rulers would have been the religion of their ancestors, their Horim. Most, if not all, the dispersed Kushite rulers had Horite Hebrew in their service. The Horite Hebrew were a very prestigious ruler-priest caste. Thus, it appears that the ancient Horim/Horites were the first missionaries of the Messianic Faith. This happens thousands of years after the Earth was already populated, just as Messiah's appearing comes thousands of years after the earliest Messianic expectation. Apparently, the Eternal One does not rush matters.

The High God is sometimes shown with horns and a solar halo in images found from the Nile to the Kushan territories and as far as Northwestern France and Ireland.

Among the biblical Horite Hebrew the archetype of Messiah was Horus or Enki, the son of God who was said to rise from the dead on the third day.

Among the Celts he was recast as Crom Dubh, and among the Serbs as Hromi Daba or Hrom Div. He was regarded as the "Giving God."

Etruscan image, 520 BC

At Nile shrines Horus appears as man with a falcon's head. His mother,Hathor, wears the long horns of the bull in the shape of a Y that cradles the Sun. This Y shape is a solar cradle indicating divine appointment. The Canaanite Y designates a Horite Hebrew ruler. Note that many names have the initial Y. Some examples include Yaqtan (Joktan), Yacob (Jacob), Yistzak (Isaac),Yosef (Joseph) Yetro (Jethro), Yishai (Jesse), and Yeshua (Joshua/Jesus). The Y was a solar cradle that indicated a Horite Hebrew ruler-priest in Canaan.

Sargon I is said to have been of a virgin queen who was overshadowed by the High God. He was born in an O-piru. His home city was called Azu-piranu, meaning "House of the God Anu" In Akkadian, the High God was called Anu  and his so was called Enki.

Here is a sign post pointing to the origins of Messianic expectation, concerning the divine appointment of a virgin who is to bring forth the "seed" of God (Gen. 3:15). We recall the angel Gabriel's reply to Mary's question, "How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?" The angel explained, "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore the Holy One which shall be born of thee shall be called the "Son of God." (Luke 1:34, 35)

The image of Hathor shows her overshadowed by the Sun. The Sun rests in the horns of a cow, a solar cradle (Y). An ancient Egyptian ritual involved placing a male baby before the image of Hathor and the priests placed gifts before the "divine son."

Hathor overshadowed

The cultural context of the Horite Hebrew in Canaan is Kushite. "Kushite" is a general term for people who lived in the region of Kush along the Nile between about 2000 BC and 500 BC. Before the time of the Kushites.

The Kushite king Menes was the first to unite the Upper and Lower Nile and the Kushite influence is seen on the earliest dynasties of Egypt.

Abraham's Horim

Abraham's ruler-priest ancestors are listed in Genesis 4, 5, 11 and 36. Apparently, they had a distinctive reddish (ruddy) skin tone. They are called Horites in Genesis 36 because they were devotees of Horus, who was regarded as the "son" of the Creator.

The oldest known center of Horite Hebrew worship is Nekhen (Hierakonpolis) on the Nile. Votive offerings at the Nekhen temple were ten times larger than the normal mace heads and bowls found elsewhere, suggesting that this was a very prestigious shrine. Horite priests placed invocations to Horus at the summit of the fortress as the sun rose. This is the origin of the morning ritual of devout Hindus (Agnihotra) and the Jewish Sun Blessing ritual (Birkat Hachama) that is performed every 28 years.

The Kushite peoples are descendants of Kush and Kush's sons Ramah and Nimrod. Kush is listed in Genesis 10 as one of Noah's grandsons. Kush was the father of Nimrod.

About 5200 years ago, Nimrod established a kingdom in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. His name is of Nilotic origin, and he was a Kushite kingdom builder.The language of his kingdom was Akkadian and it shares roots with the languages of the biblical populations of the Nile, Arabia, Mesopotamia, and Anatolia.

Nimrod married a patrilineal cousin, the daughter of Asshur, and she named their first born son after her father. This is consistent with the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Horite Hebrew rulers.

Here is an image of an ancient image of a priest from the Upper Nile. Priests were called "tera" and Abraham's father held this title (Gen. 11:24-28). 

Abraham's Annu ancestors knew the holy Name YHWH. Moses knew that Name because his father Amram was Horite Habiru and Moses' half-sister wife was Kushite.

Genesis 6 speaks of "the mighty men of old," the earliest kingdom builders who constructed cities, temples, and fortified high places. They controlled commerce on the major water systems of the ancient world. They migrated out of the Upper Nile Valley in different directions, and they were served by a prestigious caste of Horite Hebrew priests.

Migrations out of the Upper Nile traced genetically 

DNA evidence confirms the Kushite migration out of the Nile Valley. There were many migrations out of Africa. The first took place about 120,000 years ago and the second about 70,000 years ago. About 18,000 years ago the distinction between R1 and R1b was evident.

About 70% of men in Britain, Scotland and Ireland are in Haplogroup R1b.  The most recent expansion out of Africa is the Kushite expansion about 5500 years ago. This appears to have spread the Horite Hebrew religion and carried the Messianic expectation to distant lands.

Sunday, January 6, 2019

A Woman at a Well

Alice C. Linsley

Archaeologists have found many images of women at wells in Palestine and Syria. Below is a detail of the baptistery painting form Deir ex-Zor in Syria. Some believe that this may be an image of the Virgin Mary. However, it more likely is an image of Photini, the Samaritan woman who Jesus spoke to at Jacob's well.

Photini was and is esteemed among Christians. She was the first evangelist and tradition holds that she and her children were martyred in Carthage. In the Eastern Church, Photini is regarded as "equal to the Apostles."

Credit: Tony De Camillo/Yale University Art Gallery

In the Bible brides are often met at wells. In this sense, Photini represents the Bride of Christ, the Church and points to the Wedding Feast of the Lamb when Christ returns.

Many biblical figures met their future wives at wells. Abraham met Keturah, his cousin wife, at the Well of Sheba, where she resided. Moses met his cousin wife Zipporah at a well in Midian. 

Likewise, Abraham's servant found Isaac a wife at a well. Caesarius of Arles spoke of this in one of his sermons. 
“Therefore blessed Jacob, as you have heard, went into Mesopotamia to take a wife. When he had come to a certain well, he saw Rachel coming with her father's sheep - after he recognized her as his cousin, he kissed her as soon as the flock was supplied with water. If you notice carefully, brothers, you can recognize that it was not without reason that the holy patriarchs found their wives at wells or fountains. If this had happened only once, someone might say it was accidental and not for some definite reason. Blessed Rebekah who was to be united to blessed Isaac was found at the well; Rachel whom blessed Jacob was to marry was recognized at the well; Zipporah who was joined to Moses was found at the well.” (Sermon 88:1)

The list of ruler-priests daughters who were first approached at wells includes:  Keturah, Rebekah, Rachel and Zipporah, Asenath, and Tamar. All these women grew up around shrines where their fathers served as priests. Asenath’s father was a priest of the Egyptian shrine at Heliopolis on the Nile. Zipporah’s father was a priest of a shrine in the Negev. Tamar’s father is identified in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan as the priest Shem of Melchizedek. This explains why Tamar was to be stoned to death. According to Leviticus 21:9, a priest's daughter guilty of prostitution or adultery was to be executed by this means.

These daughters of priests were women of high rank but they did not live pampered lives. Zipporah was drawing water for her father’s livestock when she met Moses. Rebekah was likewise engaged when Abraham’s servant arrived to contract a marriage between her and Isaac.

Note that most of these priestly daughters had two sons:

Rebekah - Esau (oldest) and Jacob (youngest)
Rachel - Joseph (oldest) and Benjamin (youngest)
Zipporah - Gershom (oldest) and Eliezer (youngest)
Asenath - Manasseh (oldest) and Ephraim (youngest)
Tamar - Zerah (oldest) and Perez (youngest)

Often the younger son receives a position of priority or a familial blessing. Both sons are ancestors of Messiah, however, since the Horite Hebrew lines intermarried. We find this preference for the youngest son in the stories of Abraham and David. Both were Horite Hebrew rulers.

Let’s take a closer look at each of these women.

Keturah, Abraham’s Cousin Wife
Keturah resided at the Well of Sheba (Beersheba) where Abraham went to take her as his cousin wife. She was the daughter of the priest Joktan. According to the cousin bride’s naming prerogative, she named their first-born son Joktan after her father. She bore Abraham six sons. Her son Midian is the ancestor of Zipporah who married Moses.

Rebekah, Isaac’s Cousin Wife

Rebekah's father was Bethuel. Bethuel was Abraham’s nephew, the son of his brother Nahor who ruled over Terah’s territory called Aramea. His name means "House of God" and likely refers to his shrine. Bethuel of Paddan-Aram or Aramathea was a "brother" of the tribal unit designated Huz, Uz, Buz. According to Genesis 22:20-22, Buz was one of Abraham’s nephews. Job was a “son” of Uz (Job 1:1).

Rachel, Jacob’s Cousin Wife

Rachel was Jacob's cousin wife.She was of the clan of Laban. It is likely that she and Leah were half-sisters. Jacob met her while she was drawing water at the well. She bore him two sons, both of whom are significant ancestors of Jesus Messiah. The oldest son, Joseph, married Asenath, the daughter of a priest of Heliopolis, the most prestigious shrine city on the Nile at that time.

Asenath, Joseph’s Egyptian wife

Asenath bore Joseph two sons: Manasseh and Ephraim. Ephraim, the younger son, was tagged as an ancestor of the Jesus, God’s Son. Asenath's name means “holy to Anath”. Anath was an Afro-Asiatic goddess who was sometimes called Mari-Anath, the consort of the high God. Many water shrines were dedicated to her and women came to these shrines to ask the Deity for children or to ask for healing (compare to John 5).

Zipporah, Moses’ Midianite Wife

Zipporah was Moses’ wife and a daughter of Jethro, Priest of Midian. Her name is derived from the word ציפור (tsipor, meaning “bird”). Moses met her at a well where she and the other women were being harassed by Egyptians. She bore Moses two sons: Gershom and Eliezer. The younger son was Eliezer, whose name means "God is my help”, is tagged as the ancestor of Jesus, the Son of God. Jacob gives the blessing reserved for the firstborn to Ephraim (Gen 48). Ephraim's descendants inhabited the principal Canaanite settlements, including Baal-shalisha which means the Three-God or the God associated with the number three.

In 1 Chronicles 23:17, we read about Eliezer’s descendants: "Rehabiah was the first. Eliezer had no other sons, but the sons of Rehabiah were very numerous.” Note that the name of Eliezer's only son is a variant of the name Rehab. Rehab, who dwelt in Jericho, was another ancestor of Jesus Christ.

In 1 Chronicles 23:17, we read about Eliezer’s descendants: "Rehabiah was the first. Eliezer had no other sons, but the sons of Rehabiah were very numerous.” Note that the name of Eliezer's only son is a variant of the name Rehab. Rehab, who dwelt in Jericho, was another ancestor of Jesus Christ.

Rahab helped Joshua and Caleb to capture the city of Jericho. She lowered the spies from a window and tied a scarlet cord from the window to protect her household when the Israelites attacked. The scarlet cord, like the blood of the lamb on the doorposts in Egypt, is a sign of the Blood of Jesus.

Tamar, Mother of Twins

Tamar was Judah’s daughter-in-law who bore him twin sons after he had intercourse with her at a shrine. Possibly this was the shrine of her "father's house" to which she was sent by Judah when he refused to provide her another of his sons as levir. [2]

Tamar's name means date nut palm. The tamar was a symbol of fertility. Judah praised Tamar as "more righteous” than himself (Gen. 38:26) because she found fulfilled the levirate law when he failed to do so. The younger of Tamar's two sons was Perez, is tagged as an ancestor of Jesus Christ. The book of Ruth tells us that King David is a descendant of Abraham through Perez.

The Pattern in the New Testament

In the New Testament, we find the pattern with Photini, the Samaritan Woman at Jacob’s well. According to Tradition her name is Photini and she symbolizes the Church, the "Bride of Christ". The well represents refreshment and a place of ritual cleansing, like baptism. Caesarius of Arles explains that Isaac, Jacob and Moses are types of Jesus Christ, "for this reason they found their wives at wells, because Christ was to find His church at the waters of baptism."

Mary's father was Joachim and tradition tells us that he was both a priest and a shepherd. This meant that he would have needed a well or river to water his flocks. Mary's husband was Joseph of Bethlehem [3], the city of David. According to 2 Samuel 24, David built an altar at the threshing floor of Araunah, the Jebusite. Here the shepherd David is shown as a priest, the dual roles that characterize the ruler-priests whose patrilineal lines intermarried, bringing us to the house of Joachim, Mary's father, who was both priest and shepherd.

Widows attached themselves to shrines and temples once their husbands have died. This is what happened in the case of the Prophetess Anna (Luke 2:36-38). She had been living in the temple precincts for many years when Mary brought Jesus to the temple. She beheld the Christ child and proclaimed to all the appearing of Messiah.

The Pattern Observed Today

Priest daughters, widows and indentured virgins lived at temples and shrines throughout the Afro-Asiatic Dominion. The custom is observed even today in Africa and in India, the western and eastern ends of the ancient Afro-Asiatic Dominion. To understand Canaanite shrines, we do well to investigate its counterparts in West Africa and India.

Osofo Ahadzi explains that women consult deities at the water shrines in order to have children. These children are often pledged to the shrine or to the deity (as Hannah pledged Samuel to God in return for blessing her with a child). Ahadzi says that people who fail to redeem such pledges eventually lose those children.

The same practice is evident at Hindu temples. Dr. Shabhash C. Sharma writes, "Regarding the treatment of people (including the young girls and widows) in shelters, temples and orphanages, Hinduism is quite emphatic in its opposition to any abuse and exploitation at the hands of those in positions of power and authority: 'He, who betrays one who has sought refuge, will meet destruction. The very earth will not let the seed that he sows, sprout.' The Mahabarata (1, p. 181).

Dr. Sharma further explains: "Sometimes even if the parents of a young girl or boy are alive, they might not be in a good socio-economic condition to take care of their kid and thus could decide to send her/him to live in a temple thinking that the temple would do a better job in raising their child. Thus the temple might be considered by some people an ideal place to raise their child where free room, board and education (in spirituality, arts, music, dancing etc.) are available, perhaps in return for a small or light physical (manual) service (work) to the temple."

Dr Sharma explains: "The same type of consideration, as indicated above for young girls, is generally applicable to adult women, especially the widows, when they decide to live in temples and religious places like Vrindavan. Note that even though the widows living in such places (temples etc.) might number in several thousand they still represent an extremely small minority relative to millions of Indian widows..."


1. While it seems that most of the stories of conflict between brothers involve two brothers, there is always the larger picture to consider which often involves a third brother.  For example:  Abel is killed and Seth is his replacement. Abraham's older brother Haran is said to have died in Ur. Usually one of the three sons is less well known, dies, or even hidden in the text. This is the case with the three brothers Magog, Og and Gog. We have to hunt to find Og, because this third brother is hidden in the text. We note the persistence of the pattern of three sons here:

Gen. 4 - Cain, Abel, Seth
Gen. 4 - Jubal, Jabal, Tubal
Gen. 7 - Ham, Shem, Japheth
Gen. 11 - Haran, Nahor, Abraham
Gen. 46 - Jimnah, Jishvah, Jishvi

Moses was one of three sons. His brothers Aaron and Korah were both priests. Korah was a direct descendant of Seir the Horite Hebrew ruler of Edom (Gen. 36)

It appears that the three sons formed a three-clan confederation. The same trait is found among the extant Jebusites. While there are two Jebu provinces, there are three brothers: Yoruba, Egba and Ketu. We find this same two kingdoms-three brother pattern in Genesis.

2. The practice of levirate marriage is very ancient. The term is derived from the Latin word levir, meaning "husband's brother". When a man died without a man heir, his widow was married to the next oldest son whose duty it was to produce a son for his dead brother.

3. Bethlehem was a Horite Hebrew town and the Horites and Jebusites shared common ancestors. I Chronicles 4:4 lists Hur (Hor) as the "father of Bethlehem".

Related reading: Wells and Brides; Where Abraham Spent His Old Age; The Daughters of Priests; The Two Brides of Christ; Three-Clan Confederations to Twelve Tribes

Friday, December 28, 2018

Horite Hebrew Expectation and the Star of Bethlehem

Alice C. Linsley

Sidereal astronomy is real science based on observation of the arrangement and movement of the fixed stars and planets. This science originated among Abraham's Nilotic (Kushite) ancestors who had recorded information about the fixed stars and clock-like motion of the planets and constellations for thousands of years. By 4245 BC, the priests of the Upper Nile had established a calendar based on the appearance of the star Sirius. Apparently, Nilotes had been tracking this star and connecting it to seasonal changes and agriculture for thousands of years. This is verified by the Priest Manetho who reported in his history (241 BC) that Nilotic Africans had been “star-gazing” as early as 40,000 years ago. Plato, who studied in Egypt, claimed that the Africans had been tracking the heavens for 10,000 years.

The ancient Egyptians shared the knowledge with the ancient Greeks. Plato claimed that the Africans had been tracking the heavens for 10,000 years. Plato studied with an Egyptian priest for 13 years and knew about Earth's Great Year, also called the "Platonic Year." This is the time of between 25,000 and 28,000 years that it takes for Earth to complete the cycle of axial precession. This precession was known to Plato who defined the "perfect year" as the return of the celestial bodies (planets) and the diurnal rotation of the fixed stars to their original positions.

The ancients were motivated to understand the celestial pattern because they believed that the order in creation was fixed by the Creator and they were concerned about trespassing boundaries or violating the order in creation. They believed "As in the heavens, so on earth."

Attorney Rick Larson spent many years researching the Star of Bethlehem and discovered that sidereal astronomy is real science, based on observation of the arrangement and movement of the fixed stars and planets. Watch Rick Larson's Star of Bethlehem as a Christmas treat to you and your family.

For the ancient Nilo-Saharans and Egyptians the stars in the constellation of Leo were especially important because the Nile rose when the Sun passed through the constellation of Leo. Therefore, they associated the arousal of the Lion with the arousal of the waters. The lion was the totem of the tribe of Judah. In Genesis 1, we read that the Spirit of God hovered over the watery deep at the beginning. In John's Gospel we are reminded that the Son was with the Father and the Spirit before the world was made and that all things were made through Him.

The Magi were sidereal astronomers who lived east of Israel, likely in Babylon or Persia. They were heirs of the same astronomical knowledge as the ancient Egyptians because they were from Judah, like Daniel and the others from Judah (Jews) who served as advisers to King Nebuchadnezzar. The people of Judah knew of the ancient Horite Hebrew prophecy concerning a Woman of their people who would bring forth the Seed/Son (Gen. 3:15). They also believed Messiah would be born of the royal house of David.

When the Magi appeared before Herod they were told that the King of the Jews was to be born in David's city, Bethlehem. I Chronicles 4:4 claims that Bethlehem was a Horite Hebrew town. Abraham and David were of the Horite Hebrew ruler-priest lines. Joseph and Mary, both descendants of Abraham and David, went there to register for the census.

The Magi were aware of God's promise concerning a King whose kingdom would endure through all the ages because reference to the Messianic promise of Psalm 145:13 is found repeatedly in Daniel. It punctuates the rise and fall of kingdoms and proclaims the coming of an eternal kingdom. As astronomers, the Magi recognized the singular event of Jupiter's triple spiral that brought it in close proximity to Regulus in the constellation Leo, the Lion. The Babylonians called Regulus Sharu, which means king. The word is related to the Persian word Shir, meaning lion.

In his translation of the eighth-century AD Syriac manuscript "The Revelation of the Magi," Brent Landau describes the Magi as those who “pray in silence,” and he proposes that they were a small group of monk-like mystics from a mythical land called Shir. However, there is no such place. Shir refers to the lion, the totem for the Horite Hebrew clans that resided in Judah. The Magi are the descendants of those who were deported. They held the received tradition concerning the coming of Messiah. This explains their recognition of the Messianic symbolism of the alignment of the King Planet and the King Star.

Using Starry Night, a software program that tracks celestial events at any time in history, Larson discovered that Jupiter, the King Planet met Regulus, the King Star at the beginning of the Jewish New Year in 3 BC. The conjunction of the King Planet and the King Star produced the appearance of an extraordinarily bright star. Larson believes this is when Gabriel announced to Mary that she was chosen to bear the Son of God. 

When Mary asked how this could be, the Angel explained that she would be "overshadowed," the very expression used by the Horite Hebrew to speak of conception of the divine Son by Hathor, the mother of Horus (Enki). She was believed to conceive by the overshadowing of the Sun, the symbol of the Creator. In Christian iconography, the Sun is usually replaced by the image of a dove hovering over Mary.

The Horite Hebrew commemorated the death and resurrection of Horus in a 5-day festival. As Plutarch noted in Isis and Osiris, 69, the first 3 days were marked by solemnity and mourning for the death of Horus. His death was commemorated by the planting of seeds of grain. On the third day, the 19th of Athyr, there was a joyful celebration of Horus’ rising to life. Jesus' third-day resurrection fulfilled that Horite Hebrew expectation.

Skeptics claim that Christians based the story of Jesus on the ancient myth of Horus. Christians have done a poor job of answering this ridiculous claim. It takes more faith to believe that Christianity is the Horus myth reworked than to accept that Abraham's ancestors were Horite Hebrew. This is why the Jews call their ancestors "Horim"  and this is what is revealed by analysis of the Genesis King Lists. The Horite Hebrew believed the promise made to their Edenic ancestors (Gen. 3:15) that a woman of their ruler-priest lines would bring forth the Son of God, the Messiah. This is the origin of Messianic expectation.

Related reading:  Ancient Wisdom, Science and Technology; Who Were the Wise Men?Mary's Ruler-Priest Lineage; Joseph's Relationship to Mary; Jesus Fulfills the Horus MythThe Christ in Nilotic Mythology; Frank Moore Cross: Israel's God is the God of the Horites

Friday, December 21, 2018

The Ethnicity of Abraham and David

Alice C. Linsley

Abraham, Moses, Samuel and David were all Horite Hebrew as evidenced by the common marriage and ascendancy pattern of their fathers. Analysis of the marriage and ascendancy structure of their families reveals the distinctive pattern of the Horite Hebrew ruler-priest caste.

The pattern of Moses' family is identical to that of the Nilo-Saharan rulers listed in Genesis 4, 5, 10 and 11, and to that of Abraham's father Terah and Samuel's father Elkanah."

David's father was a ruler-priest of the Horite Hebrew city of Bethlehem. It appears that all of these great men were Horites or Horim.

Jews call their ancestors "Horim" which is Horite in English Bibles. Abraham ruled in Edom, the land of the Biblical Horites. Other Horite rulers are listed in Genesis 36, including Seir the Horite, from whom Aram, Moses's father is descended.

At the time that Abraham lived there were no nations in the modern sense. There were peoples, clans, and castes. Ethnic identities aligned with the territorial chief. Jewish ethnicity, however, is figured through the Jewish mother.

Abraham's ethnicity was Kushite and his father was a ruler-priest descendant of Nimrod, a son of Kush. Nimrod was a sent-away son who became a mighty ruler in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. This is why we first meet Abraham in Ur, though his ancestors were cattle-herding Nilo-Saharans.

Abraham was another sent-away son whose territory extended on a north-south axis between his two wives Sarah and Keturah. Sarah resided in Hebron and Keturah lived in Beersheba. Abraham also dug wells in Gerar to the west and had a treaty with the ruler of that region. Likely he also had water rights at Engedi to the east. This means that Abraham's territory was entirely in the region know as ancient Edom. The Greeks called this region Idumea, meaning "land of red people."

Edom is named in the Bible as one of the ancient seats of wisdom. The wisdom of the Horites extended to medicine, astronomy, writing, commerce, navigation, natural sciences, and architecture. The 400-acre Edomite complex at Petra reflects Horite beliefs. This was the home of the red Nabateans. Naba or Nabu was the guardian of scribes and prophets. The cult of Nabu was introduced into Mesopotamia and Babylon by the Kushites. Kushite kings sometimes bore the name Nabu, as with Nabu-shum-libur, an early Kushite king in Babylon and Nabu-aplu-iddina. This is the origin of the Hebrew word nabi, meaning prophet.

The Horites were devotees of the Creator RA and his son Horus, born of Hathor who was divinely overshadowed. The Ra-Horus-Hathor narrative is a primitive form of the Gospel, or the Proto-Gospel about God the Father and the Son, and the miraculous conception of the Son of God by divine overshadowing.

From Abraham's Horite people receive a long-standing tradition concerning the Son or "Seed" of God (Gen. 3:15). The Horites are the direct ancestors of Jesus Christ (Matthew 1:1-17), and understanding their way of life and religious beliefs helps us to understand who Jesus is.

When someone asks about the ethnicity of a Biblical figure, they usually want to know about that person's appearance. The Bible tells us very little about the physical appearance of most Biblical persons. This is probably because people were less concerned about what we call "racial" distinctions. The genetic mix of the inhabitants of the ancient Afro-Asiatic world was extremely varied. There were black and red Nubians.

Red and black Nubians

The Egyptians were reddish-brown, dark brown and black.  The Edomites were lighter with dark wavy hair and a reddish skin tone. David is described as having a red skin tone, reflecting his connection to the Horite Hebrew of Edom (Genesis 36). The Ainu (Anu) were lighter with a reddish tone and some had green eyes. Ainu rulers wore beards.

Although both Abraham and David are portrayed in films and images as European or Middle Eastern Jews, neither was Jewish. Both lived before a people called "Jews" can be identified. Abraham lived between 980-1200 years before David and about 2200-2400 years before Jesus. (See Thoughts on Calculating the Dates of the Patriarchs.)

This Jewish writer, when asked if David was Jewish, defines Jewishness and then evades the question that must be answered. One is a Jew if his mother is Jewish or if he properly converts to Judaism. David was a Jew if his mother was, yet strangely the Bible is silent about David's mother. According to the Talmud her name was Nitzevet. The reason we find scant information about David's mother is because she wasn't a Jew. Judaism had not yet emerged as a separate religion. David's mother was a blood relative of Jesse (Yishai). She was either his half-sister or his patrilineal cousin.

Likewise, Abraham was a Jew if his mother was, yet the Bible describes Abraham as a Hebrew because Judaism did not yet exist. Again, the biblical texts tell us little about Abraham's mother. This is intriguing, given that the Jews are fastidious about genealogical records. We have reason to suspect that this information was withheld or deleted at a time after Abraham and David, probably by the Deuteronomist Historian who places great emphasis on Jewish racial purity.

Analysis of the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Horite Hebrew (shown above) reveals that Abraham's mother was the daughter of a great ruler named Nahor. This is Nahor the Elder. Nahor the Younger is Abraham's older brother who ruled Terah's territory after Terah's death. Abraham was a sent-away son to whom God delivered a kingdom in Edom.

The Horite Hebrew were a caste of ruler-priests who practiced endogamy. The Genesis text explains that Abraham and Sarah had the same father, but different mothers. Sarah was Abraham's half-sister. Keturah was his patrilineal cousin bride.

The Bible does not explicitly state the ethnicity of the mothers of Abraham and David. However, analysis of the genealogical data clarifies that they were both ancestors of Jesus Christ. Their people lived in expectation of the appearing of the Son of God, according to the promise that was made to their ancestors in Eden (Gen. 3:15). This points to the core family around which the tradition and expectation of the Son of God developed. Research on their identity makes it fairly certain that both women were of the Horite ruler-priest caste. Horite priests married the chaste daughters of Horite Hebrew priests who maintained shrines along rivers or at wells. This is why so many of the leading figures of the Bible meet their wives at wells.

The Horite priests have been traced back to the oldest know Horite shrine at Neken in the Nile valley. The Hebrew root for Horite or Horim is hr, and this is also a proper name. Hur was Moses' brother-in-law. Moses' family was also Horite, as evidenced by his father's marriage and ascendancy pattern. The name takes many forms including Hur, Haran, Harun (Aaron), Horomo, and Harwa. The Edomite rulers were Horites and the Edomite shrine city of Petra reflects Horite beliefs.

Kushite wives are found among the Horite Hebrew clans and many of the greatest figures of Biblical history married Kushite brides. Abraham and Moses did. Moses' first bride was his Kushite half-sister. Zipporah was his second wife and his patrilineal cousin.

David of Bethlehem

David was born about 1040 B.C. He was the eighth and youngest son of Jesse (Yishai). Jesse also held the title Nahash (2 Sam. 17:25). Nahash is linked etymologically to the word “snake” and to an Akkadian word meaning “magnificence.” Jesse was a Horite Hebrew shepherd-priest, as was Mary's father Joachim. Sacrificing priests kept sheep.

Jesse had a wife in Bethlehem, David's mother. The settlement of Bethlehem was originally known for the sacrifice of sheep and rams. The meat was distributed to the poor, which is why the settlement was originally called "House of Meat." This meaning is retained in the Arabic name for the town: bayt lahm. Jesse had at least twelve sons, probably by two wives.

The ruler-priests of Abraham's people maintained their two wives in separate households on a north-south axis. This is what is revealed by analysis of the kinship pattern of Genesis 4-5 and Genesis 11. I Chronicles 2:13-16 lists David’s siblings, but does not mention that some of these children may be the offspring of Jesse by two wives.

If Jesse followed the residency pattern of his ancestors, one wife resided in Bethlehem and the other resided in a Horite Hebrew settle to the north or south of Bethlehem. Probably David's mother was in Bethlehem and the other wife was probably in Hebron. This would explain why David was anointed first in Bethlehem and later anointed as king of Judah in Hebron (II Samuel 2:1-4).

We note also that before being anointed as the ruler, David had married two wives following the custom of his ruler-priest ancestors. This parallels Isaac's story, in which Abraham must find his son a second wife (Rebecca) before he dies so that Isaac may become the ruler over his territory.  Rebecca was Isaac's cousin bride. Isaac's half-sister bride would have been living in Beersheba, which is where the servant brings Rebecca to wed Isaac.

David's first two wives are likely a half-sister and a patrilineal cousin.  Ahinoam of Jezreel would have been his cousin bride, as Jezreel is just north of Hebron. Abigail of Carmel was probably his half-sister bride, as Carmel is south of Hebron. [3] She is probably the Abigail named as David's sister in I chronicles 2:16. She had married Nabal who refused to help David when he needed provisions for his men. 

Now the question arises as to the identity of David’s mother. What should this matter? Because according to the custom of Abraham’s people, ethnicity or bloodline is traced matrilineally. Even today Jewish Law defines a Jew as one of three things:

• Someone who is matrilineally descended from Jacob (Israel) by any of his wives
• Someone who has properly converted
• Someone who is matrilineally descended from a proper convert.

The first is the only definition that can be applied to Abraham and David since both men lived before the Babylonian Captivity which marks the beginning of Jewish identity, and among their people ethnicity was traced through the mothers. This being the case, the critical question is what was the ethnic identity of David's mother?

David's Mother

According to the Talmud (tractate Bava Batra 91a), David's mother was a daughter of Adael. Adael is the masculine equivalent of the name Adah. Adah was the wife of Lamech the Elder, and the mother of Jubal and Jabal (Genesis 4). This is also the name of one of Esau the Elder’s wives. So Adah and Adael is a family name traced back to the lines of Cain and Seth (which intermarried). Both versions of the name are traceable to the Kenites, the descendants of Cain who intermarried with Seth's line.  So David is kin to the Kenites. This explains why David sent the spoils of war to the cities of Judah and to the Kenites (1 Samuel 30:29).

We are familiar of the story of Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, who killed Sissera by driving a tent peg through his temple while he slept (Judges 4:21). Here we find a connection between the Kenites and the Hebrews. Heber means friend in Hebrew. The title was given to Abraham, the friend of God.

David's ancestry is traced through the following women: Tamar, the daughter of a priest. Tamar, the Righteous, tricked Judah into impregnating her. When Judah discovered that she was pregnant, he ordered that she be burned to death. This was the sentence for daughters of priests who committed adultery or harlotry. The Horite Hebrew, sometimes known as Khar/Korah, were ruler-priests who married chaste daughters of priests who ruled over shrines and temples at high elevations near permanent water sources.

Rahab of Jericho was the wife of Salmon the Horite, the Son of Hur (Hor). Salmon is called the "father of Bethlehem" in 1 Chronicles 2:54. Rahab became the grandmother of Boaz who married Ruth. Salmon (also Salma or Solomon) is a Horite name and is associated with Bethlehem (1 Chronicles 2:51).  The evidence concerning David's ethnicity points to Kenites and Horites who intermarried.

Abraham's Horite Hebrew Mother

In the ancient world shrines were places of rituals. Common rituals included baptisms or water cleansing; circumcision, and the removing of front teeth called nak or naak. Kar-nak means place of performing the removal of teeth, a practice found among the ancient Nilotes.

Abraham’s mother is not named in the Bible, but according to tradition she was the daughter of a priest associated with the Horite shrine of Karnach in ancient Nubia (Upper Nile). This is evident from the name of her father, called "Karnevo" in the Babylonian Talmud. Karnevo would have been a Horite Hebrew since the shrine of Karnach was dedicated to Horus, son of the Creator.

Another theory is that Abraham's maternal grandfather was the high priest of the shrine at Kar (mountain fortification) Nevo (Nebo). I find this theory the most compelling.

Related reading: Genesis in Anthropological PerspectiveEndogamy and Jewish IdentityThe Nilotic Origin of the AinuKushite Diversity and UnityWho Were the Horites?; Abraham's Horite Mother Challenge to Shaye Cohen's Portrayal of AbrahamMoses' Wives and Brothers

Friday, December 14, 2018

The Myth of Western Patriarchy

This illustrates the half truths circulated by Feminists. The big picture is quite different. The drama begins with Eve in the Garden and the New Paradise begins in the womb of Mary, the New Eve. Mary, the mother of Jesus Messiah, is the most honored woman in the world. She is honored in many religions other than Christianity.

In fact, the Feminist claim of universal patriarchy is a lie, or a convenient myth.

No, the structure of Western civilization is not patriarchal. Watch Jordan Peterson address this question.

Neither is the social structure of the biblical Hebrew patriarchal. This series breaks that down from the perspective of cultural anthropology.

Part 1 - Part 1 in this series addresses the Feminist claim that the biblical Hebrew had a patriarchal social structure. This unfounded assumption is the basis for attempts to justify the innovation of women priests. Since women were denied the opportunity to serve as priests among the patriarchal Hebrew the Church should ordain women to correct that social injustice.

Part 2 - Part 2 looks at the patterns of descent and shows that descent is is traced through both the paternal and maternal lines. A true patriarchy traces descent through the paternal line only. This is not a characteristic of the biblical Hebrew. Instead, they had a pattern of double descent. One expression of this is the twin entrance pillars of Solomon's temple. They are named Boaz and Jachin and the pillars commemorate Solomon's righteous ancestors on his maternal and paternal sides. Boaz was Solomon's great great grandfather on his father's side and Jachin was his great great grandfather on Bathsheba's side.

Part 3 - Part 3 considers inheritance and how rights of inheritance involve claims by both males and females. The inheritance laws among the biblical Hebrew are complex because the ruler had two first born sons. Provision was made for both sons to receive an inheritance. Additionally, grants were made to the sent-away sons of concubines. Daughters could petition to receive inheritance. By levirate marriage a widow was able to preserve her deceased husband's holdings for his son. In an extremely archaic practice, inheritance rights were attached to whoever had possession of the clan ancestor figurines. These were stolen by Rachel who knew that her husband Jacob (Israel) had no inheritance. If women did not inherit why did Rachel and Leah complain to Jacob, "Are we still likely to inherit anything form our father's estate? Does he not think of us as outsiders now?" (Gen. 31:14)
Part 4 - Part 4 looks at the right to rule. Feminists insist that the Hebrew woman's condition under Patriarchy is one of subjugation. Instead, we find strong, dignified, multi-talented, caring women who make a mark for themselves in the world. They invest wisely, oversee servants, and manage real estate. Some are so important that they are named in the Genesis king lists: Naamah, Anah and Oholibamah, are examples. Anah is called a "chief" in Genesis 36. Women also ruled as queens.

Part 5 - Part 5 explores the question of residence. The evidence of Scripture indicates that the biblical Hebrew had at least four residential arrangements: patrilocal, matrilocal, neolocal, and avunculocal. The residence of married couples depended on the social position of the groom. The residence of widows depended on their eligibility to remarry.

Part 6 - Part 6 looks at the question of governance. Do only men hold the reins of governmental authority? Decisions concerning governance were made by kings and queens. The Hebrew priests were in the service of these rulers. A Judean queen named Salome Alexandra ruled from BC 76-67. She was one of two women to exercise sole rule over Judea. Archaeologists have uncovered her palace in Jericho. Salome is the only woman mentioned in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Some of the religious reforms that shaped second-Temple Judaism were implemented under her rule.

Related reading: Are Feminists Correct About the Church?; How Feminist "Dambusters" destroyed the Church of England

Monday, December 3, 2018

Solar Symbolism Among the R1 Peoples

Alice C. Linsley

The evidence of artifacts indicates that solar symbolism was pervasive among the R1 peoples of Africa, Eurasia, Anatolia, Slovenia, ancient Gaul, and the British Isles. The Sun was a widely venerated sacred symbol of the High God and His Son.

Here is a description of Messiah as the "true sun" in Gildas' De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae:
Meanwhile, to the island stiff with frost and cold, and in a far distant corner of the earth, remote from the visible sun, He, the true sun, even Christ, first yields His rays, I mean His precepts. He spread, not only from the temporal firmament, but from the highest arc of heaven beyond all times, his bright gleam to the whole world in the latest days, as we know, of Tiberius Caesar. At that time the religion of Christ was propagated without any hindrance, because the emperor, contrary to the will of the senate, threatened with death informers against the soldiers of that same religion.

The Triglav obelisk of Slovenia appears to be a Messianic image. Here a God-Man is shown wearing the Sun as his crown. The term "Triglav" refers to the concept of a triune Presence, or Trinity. Among the Slavs this triune High God was called was Hromi Daba.

Another solar image found widely among the R1 peoples is the 6-prong rosette. It is seen below on one of these 9th century BC artifacts (coin on top right). This ancient symbol has been found from Ethiopia to England and from Pakistan to Galilee. It testifies to the importance of the Sun as a symbol of divine authority. The image was found among the Celts of the northern Iberian Peninsula.

The same image is found on Balkan pottery. Here it appears on 14th-15th century enameled terracotta tableware found at Studenica monastery complex in western Serbia. The rosette is sometimes called "Perun's flower."

The same symbol is found on this wooden entrance in Romania.

These two amulets were discovered in 1985 at the archaeological site of Mehrgarh in Balochistan, western Pakistan. The amulets date to the 3rd millennium B.C. and represent the wheel or solar chariot of the Supreme God.

This 6-prong star or rosette appears on ancient Jewish ossuaries. This was the solar boat of the Creator, the vehicle of Light that carries the dead to the place of rest until the Last Day.

Stone ossuary chest used for secondary burial of bones

The 2,000-year-old ossuary shown above belonged to a daughter of the Caiaphas family of high priests. It is marked with the 6 pointed star and has an Aramaic inscription that says, “Miriam Daughter of Yeshua Son of Caiaphas, Priests of Ma’aziah from Beth Imri.” The inscription dates to the time of the Second Temple.

The six prong star is also found on the ossuary of Joseph Caiaphas, the high priest (shown below).

The merkaba as chariot spokes within a circle appears to be an Iron Age version of Ra's solar boat. The Creator was believed to mount the sun as a chariot and ride the winds, making His circuit. This speaks about God's sovereignty over all the Earth.

It is likely that this same image appeared on the Ark of the Covenant. In the Ethiopian Church a replica of the Ark (called Tabot) is decorated at the center with the 6-prong star inside a circle.

The same image appears on a tomb at Banais, Israel, one of the sources of the Jordan river. There is a large cave and various archaeological sites with pools of water running beneath and large cliffs rising above.

The symbol appears on the top and sides of the Magdala Stone (below) which was found in the western shores of the Sea of Galilee in September 2009.

Here is another view of the Magdala Stone.

Related reading: Ossuary of Miriam, Daughter of Yeshua; A Tent for the Sun; Solar Imagery of the Proto-Gospel; Sun Symbolism and Blood Guilt; Horned Altars and Horned Sacred Vessels