Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Discovering the Historical Noah

Alice C. Linsley

Noah lived approximately 2490-2415 BC, when the Sahara experienced a wet period (Karl W. Butzer 1966). Much has been written about the African Humid Period (African Aqualithic), but rarely has a connection been made to Noah's flood.

It is common to place Noah and his ark in the area of the Black Sea, yet there is only one place on earth that is identified as Noah's homeland by the inhabitants. That is Bornu in Nigeria. Bornu means "land/country of Noah." In Nilotic Luo, "bor" mean refers to height (tall). This suggests that Noah's settlement was on the highest land which was typical of royal settlements.

Saharan petroglyphs dating to between 4300 and 2900 BC show boats and cattle. These have been found in the Eastern Central Desert of Egypt and Sudan. Examples of these images are shown above.

It appears that Noah was a Proto-Saharan ruler in the region of Lake Chad. He would have been a contemporary of the 7th-8th Dynasty rulers in Egypt. This was a time of great cultural and technological achievement and the celebrated Horite shrine city of Nekhen (4000 BC). Nekhen's sister city, Nekheb (El-Kab) sat on the opposite side to the Nile. Both were shrine cities with priests. We might speculate that if Nekhen was a Horite city, Nekheb was likely a Sethite city.

The tomb of Horemkhawef in Nekhen and the tomb of the Sobeknakht in Nekheb were painted by the same artist. Hormose, the chief priest of Nekhen, requested material goods from the temple at Nekheb for use at the temple at Nekhen. Nekhen and Nekheb were typical twin cities of the ancient world.

Though separate, the two shrine cities shared common religious practices and beliefs. It is clear in the Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (2400 -2000 BC) that the Horites and the Sethites maintained separate settlements. Utterance 308 addresses them as separate entities: "Hail to you, Horus in the Horite Mounds! Hail to you, Horus in the Sethite Mounds!"

PT Utterance 470 contrasts the Horite mounds with the mounds of Seth, designating the Horite Mounds "the High Mounds."

A great deal is known about the beliefs of Noah's culture from the 4200 year documents that have been studied by scholars, in particular the Ancient Pyramid Texts that speak of the Horite and Sethite moiety. ("Moiety" refers to one people or one caste divided into two ritual groups.)

The wet Sahara appears to be the time, place, and cultural context of Noah and his sons. This places them in relatively recent history, not at the dawn of human existence. They lived during the 7th, 8th and 9th Dynasties.

First Intermediate Period

2475-2445 BC: 7th - 8th Dynasties Noah, Shem, Ham, Japheth and Kush (a Nilote).

2445–2160 BC: 9th -10th Dynasties Nimrod, Arpachshad, Salah, Eber and Peleg and Joktan (an Afro-Arabian).

Consider these population estimates based on archaeological surveys. Between 2400 and 2200 BC, the time when Noah's flood would have occurred:

Memphis, Egypt - 32,000 inhabitants

Lagash, Iraq - 60,000 inhabitants

Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan - 40,000 inhabitants

Mari, Syria -50,000 inhabitants

There is no evidence that these populations were destroyed by a global flood.

About 4000 years before Noah people were using dugouts to navigate the rivers of the Sahara. This is attested by the discovery of this 8000 year mahogany dugout in Dufuna in the Upper Yobe valley along the Komadugu Guna River in Northern Nigeria.

Noah's animals

Noah’s concern for animals is supported by the discovery that Proto-Saharan rulers kept royal menageries of exotic animals. The oldest known zoological collection was found during the 2009 excavations at the Nekhen on the Nile. The royal menagerie included hippos, elephants, baboons and wildcats. Noah would have known about the shrine city of Nekhen. It is the oldest known site of Horite Hebrew worship. 

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