Wednesday, November 9, 2022

The Adam and Eve of History


Sethite Hebrew priest of Nekheb on the Nile with authority over the palace.

Dr. Alice C. Linsley

Taken together, the biblical data indicates that Adam and Eve were historical persons. Their descendants listed in Genesis chapters 4, 5, 10, 11, 25, and 36 are the early Hebrew organized into two ritual groups (moieties): the Horites and the Sethites. The biblical data, and existing texts written by the early Hebrew, provide a great deal of information about the Hebrew ruler-priest caste.

As Adam is the founding father of the early Hebrew, so Eve is their founding mother. The term “Hebrew” comes from the ancient Akkadian word for priest – Abru. (Akkadian is the oldest known Semitic language.) The Hebrew ruler-priest caste was called Abrutu in Akkadian.

Adam is the father of Cain and Seth. Cain is described as an early “city” builder, and Seth is the founding father of the Sethite Hebrew who are mentioned in texts from as early as 2600 B.C. This means that the historical Adam lived before 4500 B.C.
The historicity of Adam is demonstrated by analysis of the kinship data found in the king lists of Genesis chapters 4 and 5. Adam’s sons Cain and Seth married their cousins, the daughters of Enoch, a contemporary of Adam. Enoch/Enosh/Enos is a royal title derived from the ancient Akkadian first-person pronoun: anāku. Likely, this is a reference to the royal first person.

Among the Igbo of Nigeria, anochie means “a replacer” or “to replace”, and among the Ashante of Ghana ano kyi means "Ano Junior." Here we find the idea of succession, suggesting royal lineages. A Nigerian philologist friend reports that anochie also means "direct heir to a throne." Therefore, the biblical name "Enoch" is associated with royal ascendancy among the early Hebrew. This may explain why the words enoch and adam are paralleled in Psalm 8:4.

“What is man [enosh] that you are mindful of him,

the son of man [ben adam] that you care for him?”

The diagram below shows the practice of “bride exchange” between the clans of Cain and Seth. The diagram shows Cain’s line on the left. This data is found in Genesis 4. Seth’s line is found in Genesis 5. Circles represent females. Triangles represent males. This symbol = represents the marriage bond.

Chapters 4 and 5 should be studied together to understand the marriage and ascendancy pattern of these early Hebrew rulers. Analysis of the king lists reveals that the early Hebrew practiced endogamy, that is, they married exclusively within their ruler-priest caste.

The wives of Cain and Seth were the daughters of Enoch. They named their first-born sons after their father. This custom is called the “cousin bride’s naming prerogative” and the pattern is consistent throughout the diagram. Kenan is named after Kain. Jared is named after Irad, and Lamech the Younger is named after his maternal grandfather Lamech the Elder.

The first-born sons of the early Hebrew ruled over territories in the region of Lake Chad, the Nile Valley, Canaan, Mesopotamia, and Southern Turkey. Eve’s first-born son was called Cain/Kain which refers to a ruler. Variants of the word include king, khan, kenan, and qayin. 

Cain’s brother was Seth (Genesis 5) who ruled in the “Land of Seti” in the Nile Valley. Genesis 4 states that Cain was banished from his homeland and that he went east of the Nile. We find his descendants the Kenites living in the land of Canaan. The word “Canaan” is related to the word Cain. The Kenites were itinerant metal workers. In Genesis 4, metal work is mentioned in association with Tubal-Cain.

Eve’s status among the early Hebrew is evident in her exclamation upon giving birth to her first-born son, Cain. In Genesis 4:1, she claims to have acquired a man, or more accurately a ruler with God's help. She declares “qanitti”. Note the royal affix -itti that appears in rulers’ names and in reference to kings. For example, the Akkadian itti šarrim means "with the king." Itti appears in royal names such as Nefertitti. Even today among the Oromo of East Africa the affix designates persons of high social standing: Kaartuumitti, Finfinneetti and Dimashqitti.

It appears that Cain's mother believed that she gave birth to a ruler. Indeed, Cain is the archetypal earthly ruler throughout the Bible. The Book of Jude warns those who might fall prey to false teachers that God punishes those who rebel against Him. He uses these examples: Cain the ruler, Balaam the prophet, and Korah the priest.

The Virgin Mary and Jesus Among Eve's Descendants

One of Eve’s descendants is the Virgin Mary, who according to Tradition, had been dedicated to the Temple. Her father was Joachim, a priest. Mary is among the Hebrew wives and daughters of social influence, prestige, and wealth. Some of their names are preserved in the Hebrew matronymics.

A matronymic (or matronym) is a personal name based on the given name of one's mother, grandmother, or a female ancestor. Female ancestors of especially high social standing were remembered through matronymics. Matronyms are not as common among the Hebrew as patronyms, but they do appear in the cases of high-status Hebrew women.

The Virgin Mary’s full name was "Miriam Daughter of Joachim, Son of Pntjr". Pntjr or Pa-Netjer refers to Joachim’s mother. She must have been of high social status for a matronymic to be employed. That Panetjer is a matronymic is evident from a limestone stela (1539-1291 B.C.) at the Brooklyn Museum bearing the names of Governor Pekhty-nisu and his wife Panetjer. It is certain that Mary’s ancestors were high ranking ruler-priests because even those who hated her admit this in the Talmud which claims: “She who was the descendant of princes and governors played the harlot with carpenters.” (Sanhedrin 106a)

Some editions of the Jerusalem Talmud specifically name Jesus as the son of Pandera/Panther. In this case "son" would mean descendant.

Long before Judaism emerged, the Hebrew believed in God Father, God Son, and the Spirit of God that generates life. They expected a woman of their ruler-priest caste to conceive the Son of God by divine overshadowing (cf. Luke 1). Hathor, the mother of Horus, is the archetype. Ancient images show her overshadowed by the Sun.

This expectation of the incarnation of the Son of God was fulfilled when the Virgin Mary brought forth Jesus, a direct descendant through his mother of the early Hebrew ruler-priests. In Christian iconography Mary is often shown overshadowed by a dove, a symbol of the Holy Spirit.

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