Monday, August 3, 2020

Chaos Subdued

The chaotic waters (Tehom)

Texts from earliest civilizations indicate that the ancients were acute observers of the natural world. They observed flood cycles, dry seasons, and volcanic activity. Such natural phenomena are described in the Bible and in other more ancient texts. 

In Genesis 1 the chaotic primal waters are subdued by the generative Word that goes forth from the Creator. Genesis 1 uses the words tohu (formless or confused) and bohu (empty or void) to describe the beginning. The Hebrew phrase "formless and void" (Gen. 1: 2) is tohu wa-bohu and appears to be of Nilotic origin. In Isaiah 34:11 tohu means "confused" so Genesis 1 refers to matter in a confused or chaotic state before God set things in order.

The ancient Egyptians believed that chaos (tehom) dwelt south of Yebu (Elephantine Island) as a great river serpent called Apep or Apophis. This serpent is depicted as the enemy of the High God Ra, In this image Apep attacks Ra as he journeys from east to west in his solar boat. 

The serpent Tehom was overthrown by Tehut, divine Wisdom, shown in this image as Horus, the son of Ra. The image below is of a relief from the temple of Horus, Idfū in Egypt. It shows Apophis being subdued by spears.

The dark turbulent waters called Tehom in Genesis 1 relate to the Nilotic word for water, Tehem. Tehom is the antagonist of Tehut in ancient Nilotic mythology. 

In the ancient world natural and spiritual forces are often portrayed as demons and deities. In the Bablyonian context, Tiamat is a goddess, but in the Nilotic context, Tiamat is the chaotic waters that are subdued by God. 

The name of the coastal region of Yemen is Tihamat. The word is related to the Akkadian words for sea, tâmtu and ti'amtum, and tiamatu - ocean, abyss, and to the Egyptian word tehem which refers to water. 

The Law of Tehut was established about 5600 years ago by King Menés who administered justice and issued edicts to enhance food production and distribution, guard the rights of ruling families, improve education, and increase knowledge of the natural world through geometry and astronomy. The Law of Tehut was to establish order in his territory.

Friday, July 24, 2020

A Word of Thanks

More people are coming to Just Genesis to do research. There is a much improved INDEX that can help researchers find pertinent material. Take a look

The topics are arranged alphabetically and all the essays are hot linked for quick access.

Additionally, I've included "related reading" at the end of the essays to enable readers to investigate a topic more deeper.

I receive communications from people telling me that they find the approach of Biblical Anthropology helpful in gaining a clearer understanding of the Bible and biblical populations. Often they have questions that I attempt to answer, and sometimes they provide extremely important data that advances this research. This is enormously rewarding!

Thank you for following this research and for contributing to this emerging branch of cultural anthropology. Thank you for reading JUST GENESIS.

Alice C. Linsley

Related reading: Join the conversation at The Bible and Anthropology FB Group.

Thursday, July 16, 2020

Architecture Links Petra and the Horite Hebrew

Temple of Horus at Edfu

I have shown that Abraham's Horite Hebrew caste dispersed into many territories. Nahor the Elder's territory extended virtually the length on the Euphrates. Other Horite Hebrew chiefs controlled a territory from Mt. Hor northeast of Kadesh-barnea to Mt. Harun at Petra. So it should not surprise us that the temple of Horus (above ) resembles the architecture at Petra (below).

It can be argued that this architecture shows the influence of Egyptian culture on a non-Egyptian people, but that doesn't explain why Petra was built in that style. It is more likely that temple construction was overseen by Horite Hebrew ruler-priests who followed the tradition of their ancestors who established shrines and temples in many parts of the ancient world, including Nekhen on the Nile,the oldest known site of Horite Hebrew worship (4000 BC).

“Horite” refers not to ethnicity, but to the caste's belief that the Creator God Re (Anu in Akkadian) had a son named Horus (Enki in Akkadian). His totem was the falcon, and he is connected to the all-seeing eye, the Sun, and Jupiter. Minutius Felix, an early Christian apologist, discerned even in the gross darkness of paganism a ray of truth concerning Jesus, the Son of God. He wrote, “Those who make Jupiter the sovereign deity, err only in name; they are one with us as to the unity of the power.”

Petra is in modern Jordan. In ancient times this region was called Edom and was the home of the Horite Hebrew chiefs listed in Genesis 36. The land was called "Idumea" by the Greeks which means "land of red people" because, like Esau of Edom (and King David), the people had a distinctive red skin tone.

Abraham's territory was entirely in ancient Edom. His northern and southern borders were marked by the settlements of his two wives. Sarah resided in Hebron to the north, and Keturah resided in Beersheba to the south. Those locations are shown on the map.

(Robert Bewley/APAAME) An aerial view of Baydha, north of Petra. The site
contains archaeological evidence spanning more than 10,000 years.

This region holds great interest for biblical archaeologists and biblical anthropologists. People were living in this region since Paleolithic times. Early farmers were settled here in 7000 BC.

Tuesday, July 7, 2020

The Sky Bull as a Messianic Image

Alice C. Linsley

The Akkadian word for a powerful (Alpha) bull is gud. This may be the source of the word God. This would explain why in Iceland, þjór' (thor) means bull and also is the name of the High God of the Nordic pantheon before he was displaced by or renamed Odin.

The Akkadian word for bull is turu. The Danish word for bull is tyr. In Swedish bull is tjur. In Latin, bull is taurus. These share the TR root which suggests a connection to blood, purity, radiance, the Sun, copper, gold, and holiness.

The Proto-Dravidian word tor refers to blood. In Hausa, toro means clean, and in Tamil tiru means holy. There appears to be a relationship between tor and the Hebrew thr which means "to be pure." The people were made pure when the High Priest sacrificed the bull and made atonement with the blood of the sin offering (Ex. 30:1-10).

Clearly, the TR root is very old as it reflects the polysemic feature of the oldest known Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic lexicons.

The terms for ritual purity in Sumerian, Akkadian, Biblical Hebrew, Hittite, and Ugaritic are related to the idea of radiance. (See The Semantics of Purity in the Ancient Near East, p. 5.) The ancient Nilotes associated purity with the radiance of the sun, the emblem of the High God Re. (Re means "Father" in ancient Egyptian.)

Re's bull in the sky is symbolized by the Sun. In the Ancient Pyramid Texts (2400-2000 BC) the King addresses the celestial bull saying, "Hail to you, Bull of Re who has four horns, a horn of yours in the west, a horn of yours in the east, a horn of yours in the south, and a horn of yours in the north! Bend down this western horn of yours for me that I may pass."

The king seeks passage to the place of immortality in the sky (duat). He is recognized as a "pure Westerner" who has come from Nekhen (Falcon City), the oldest known site of Horite Hebrew worship.

According to the Pyramid Texts, Utterance 205, the Great Bull smites the enemies of Re. This is expressed in the Pyramid Texts, Utterance 388: "Horus has shattered (tbb, crushed) the mouth of the serpent with the sole of his foot." Those words are echoed in Genesis 3:1, the first messianic prophesy of the Bible.

The appointed bull calf of the Horite Hebrew would have looked like this.

The Great Bull is Horus the appointed bull calf who has reached mature strength. He is to pass to the heavens on the third day. "Oh Horus, this hour of the morning, of this third day is come, when thou surely passeth on to heaven, together with the stars, the imperishable stars." (Pyramid Texts, Utterance 667)

According to the Coffin Texts, Horus is "the great Falcon upon the ramparts of the house of him of the hidden name" and he says: "my wrath will be turned against the enemy of my father" and "I will put him beneath my feet." (Utterance 148)

This text is at least 800 years older than the Messianic reference of Psalm 110:1: The Lord says to my Lord: “Sit at My right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”

The Bull is to be sacrificed so that the king may eat the foreleg and haunch in the sky (Utterance 413). By forbidding the consumption of the thigh tendon attached to the hip (Gen. 32:32) Judaism distances itself from the Horite Hebrew Faith.

By eating the sacrifice, the deceased king becomes one with the sacred bull. The king is urged to rise, to "gather his bones together, shake off your dust" and enter into immortality.

Related reading: Sky Bull Eaten to Gain Immortality; The Afro-Asiatic Conception of Purity; The Ra-Horus-Hathor Narrative; Abraham's Faith Lives in Christianity

Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Discovering the Historical Noah

Alice C. Linsley

Noah lived approximately 2490-2415 BC, when the Sahara experienced a wet period (Karl W. Butzer 1966). Much has been written about the African Humid Period (African Aqualithic), but rarely has a connection been made to Noah's flood.

It is common to place Noah and his ark in the area of the Black Sea, yet there is only one place on earth that is identified as Noah's homeland by the inhabitants. That is Bornu in Nigeria. Bornu means "land of Noah."

Saharan petroglyphs dating to between 4300 and 2900 BC show boats and cattle. These have been found in the Eastern Central Desert of Egypt and Sudan. Examples of these images are shown above.

It appears that Noah was a Proto-Saharan ruler in the region of Lake Chad. He would have been a contemporary of the 7th-8th Dynasty rulers in Egypt. This was a time of great cultural and technological achievement and the celebrated Horite shrine city of Nekhen (4000 BC). Nekhen's sister city, Nekheb (El-Kab) sat on the opposite side to the Nile. Both were shrine cities with priests. We might speculate that if Nekhen was a Horite city, Nekheb was likely a Sethite city.

The tomb of Horemkhawef in Nekhen and the tomb of the Sobeknakht in Nekheb were painted by the same artist. Hormose, the chief priest of Nekhen, requested material goods from the temple at Nekheb for use at the temple at Nekhen. Nekhen and Nekheb were typical twin cities of the ancient world.

Though separate, the two shrine cities shared common religious practices and beliefs. It is clear in the Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (2400 -2000 BC) that the Horites and the Sethites maintained separate settlements. Utterance 308 addresses them as separate entities: "Hail to you, Horus in the Horite Mounds! Hail to you, Horus in the Sethite Mounds!"

PT Utterance 470 contrasts the Horite mounds with the mounds of Seth, designating the Horite Mounds "the High Mounds."

A great deal is known about the beliefs of Noah's culture from the 4200 year documents that have been studied by scholars, in particular the Ancient Pyramid Texts that speak of the Horite and Sethite moiety. ("Moiety" refers to one people or one caste divided into two ritual groups.)

The wet Sahara appears to be the time, place, and cultural context of Noah and his sons. This places them in relatively recent history, not at the dawn of human existence. They lived during the 7th, 8th and 9th Dynasties.

First Intermediate Period

2475-2445 BC: 7th - 8th Dynasties Noah, Shem, Ham, Japheth and Kush (a Nilote).

2445–2160 BC: 9th -10th Dynasties Nimrod, Arpachshad, Salah, Eber and Peleg and Joktan (an Afro-Arabian).

Consider these population estimates based on archaeological surveys. Between 2400 and 2200 BC, the time when Noah's flood would have occurred:

Memphis, Egypt - 32,000 inhabitants

Lagash, Iraq - 60,000 inhabitants

Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan - 40,000 inhabitants

Mari, Syria -50,000 inhabitants

There is no evidence that these populations were destroyed by a global flood.

About 4000 years before Noah people were using dugouts to navigate the rivers of the Sahara. This is attested by the discovery of this 8000 year mahogany dugout in Dufuna in the Upper Yobe valley along the Komadugu Guna River in Northern Nigeria.

Noah's animals

Noah’s concern for animals is supported by the discovery that Proto-Saharan rulers kept royal menageries of exotic animals. The oldest known zoological collection was found during the 2009 excavations at the Nekhen on the Nile. The royal menagerie included hippos, elephants, baboons and wildcats. Noah would have known about the shrine city of Nekhen. It is the oldest known site of Horite Hebrew worship. 

Sunday, June 14, 2020

Abraham's Faith Lives in Christianity

The Cross on a wall at the Temple of Horus at Edfu.

Alice C. Linsley

There is a surprising consistency between the Horite Hebrew religion and Christianity. The earliest Christians were Jews who continued their worship practices. However, Judaism, did not preserve the faith of Abraham.

Certainly, early Christian worship was patterned on the synagogue, with scripture readings, prayers, homilies, and days of feasting and fasting. The east-facing altar is patterned on the worship places of the Hebrew, as are church furnishings such as the tabernacle and the lamp. However, Christianity alone affirms that Messiah is the Son of God.

The Apostle Paul wrote a great deal about the Messianic Faith and how it is expressed in the promises made to Abraham the Hebrew. Paul stresses that those who follow Jesus Messiah have been made partakers of those ancient promises (Galatians 3:7-9). He exposes as a false teaching the Judaizers' insistence that the Messianic Faith requires adherence to the laws of Judaism.

Paul makes it clear that the true believer is connected to Abraham the Hebrew, not to Judaism. He identifies Abraham’s Seed as Jesus Messiah. In Galatians 3:29, Paul explains, “If you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, and heirs according to the promise” made to Abraham.

In a sense, the earliest followers of Jesus re-discovered the faith of Abraham. They came to believe that Jesus is the Son of God whose sacrifice on the mountain was prefigured in the sacrifice of the Ram on Mount Moriah. James 2 explains, "Was not Abraham our father justified by works, when he had offered Isaac his son upon the altar?" This is what Father Abraham discovered.

Horus as the appointed ram to be sacrificed.

For Abraham the Horite Hebrew, the ram was associated with the west, the setting sun, and the future. The son of God rode with the Father on the solar boat. The boat of the morning hours was called Mandjet and the boat of the evening hours was called Mesektet. While Horus was on the Mesektet, he was in his ram-headed form.

The ram provided by God spoke of  God's acceptance of Abraham's intent to offer Isaac. The lamb that Issac had anticipated and which Abraham said God would provide became the ram. Horus was the Lamb in his weaker state and he was the Ram in his glorified sacrificed strength. 

John expresses the good news of Messiah this way:
God declares that Jesus is his Son. All who believe this know in their hearts that it is true. If anyone doesn’t believe this, he is actually calling God a liar because he doesn’t believe what God has said about his Son. And what is it that God has said? That he has given us eternal life and that this life is in his Son. So whoever has God’s Son has life; whoever does not have his Son, does not have life. (1 John 9b-12)
Christianity is an organic religion that emerges out of a belief that God made a promise in Eden and that He has been busy fulfilling that promise in Jesus Christ, the Son of God. The core of Christianity can be traced to the beliefs of Abraham and his ancestors. It predates all the great world religions. Christianity isn't original, but what it lacks in originality it makes up for in great antiquity, and herein rests its authority.

Solar Symbolism

Among the Horite Hebrew the sun was the symbol of the High God. The ancient solar symbolism is very much a part of Christianity. The oldest churches in both the East and the West have the altar at the east end (ad orientem) and the priest celebrates facing the rising sun with his back to the congregation.

Timothy I, Patriarch of the Church of the East from 780 to 823, explains, "He [Christ] has taught us all the economy of the Christian religion: baptism, laws, ordinances, prayers, worship in the direction of the east, and the sacrifice that we offer. All these things He practiced in His person and taught us to practice ourselves."

In many of the great cathedrals the window above the high altar depicts the sun. Here is an example from the Duomo in Milan, Italy.

Another example is found at a church in Lugano, Switzerland. This image was adopted by the Jesuits and is found wherever they established centers of learning.

A Triune Godhead

The Messianic Faith of Abraham has spread to so many populations that it is difficult to identify a single people group with his faith. Judaism rejects the idea that God has a son, so Judaism does not represent the faith of Abraham.

Abraham and his Horite Hebrew caste believed in God Father, God Son and God Spirit. Among the Nilotic Hebrew God Father was called Re, God Son was called Horus, and God Spirit was called Akh (related to the word 'ankh").

The ankh appears on ancient images related to the hope of the resurrection. It is held, often by Hathor (mother of Horus), to the mouth of the deceased in the mouth opening ritual. The image above was found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun. In the Nicene Creed, the Spirit of God ("Akh" in ancient Egyptian) is called "the Lord, the giver of life."

The mouth is used to consume food and the deceased were offered the bread of life, called "the kmhw bread of Horus" in ancient Egyptian, and called " khenfu cake" in Akkadian. Khenfu cakes are mentioned in the 2500 BC Code of Ani. Ani/Anu is the Akkadian word for the High God and his son's Akkadian name is Enki. God the Spirit was called Enlil. Enlil is equivalent to the Hebrew word Ruach (Genesis 1), as it means the breath or wind of the Creator.

The image above shows a ka-priest presenting the bread of life in a basket. Note that the bread is round like the sun at the top of the image. The bread above is reflected in or replicated by the bread below. ("As in heaven, so on earth."). The sun was the emblem of God Father and God Son among the Horite Hebrew. As on Hezekiah's seal, it often appears winged and resembles the scarab or dung beetle that navigates by the Milky Way. The ancient Egyptians considered the Milky Way the path to eternity.

The Bread of Life

In The Pyramid Texts (2400 BC) we read: "O Hunger, do not come for me; go to the Abyss, depart to the flood! I am satisfied, I am not hungry because of this kmhw bread of Horus which I have eaten." (Utterance 338) It appears that the "kmhw bread of Horus" is the bread of immortality prefigured in Scripture as Manna in the wilderness. Jesus said, "I am the bread of life. Your forefathers ate the manna in the wilderness, yet they died.This is the bread that comes down from heaven, so that anyone may eat of it and not die." (John 6:48-50) Concerning himself, Jesus said that "unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day" (John 6:53-54).

Palms and Palm Sunday

Certainly some biblical populations are still extant. The Jebusites are an example. They are called Jebu or Ijebu in Africa. Jebu rulers are installed with palm branches. Jude Adebo Adeleye Ogunade writes in his memoir about growing up Ijebu. He was warned not to touch the leaves of the Igi-Ose tree, because as his Mama Eleni explained: "That tree is the tree whose leaves are used to install Chiefs and Kings of Ijebu and as your grandfather was a custodian of the rites of chieftaincy and kingship you must not play with its leaves." 

Jerusalem was a Jebusite city and a Jebusite tradition was observed when Jesus was greeted as King by people waving palm branches.

Painted ostrich egg 7th century BC found on Cyprus.
Credit: De Agostini Picture Library

Easter Eggs

Painted ostrich eggs have been found in tombs at Hierakonpolis (Nekhen), the oldest known site of Horite Hebrew worship. They also have been found in many graves of children in ancient Nubia. At Naqada, a decorated ostrich egg replaced the owner's missing head. This egg is now in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford.

The eggs were placed in graves as an expression of hope for life after death. The ostrich feather was also symbolic of that hope. The personification of truth called Ma'at is shown with an ostrich feather in her hair. Using this feather, she weighed the hearts of the dead to determine who would enter eternal life and who would experience the second death (Rev. 2:11, 20:14).

(For further exploration of this topic, see this thread.)

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Messy Transition of Genesis 6

Alice C. Linsley

Genesis chapters 1-3 are creation and origin stories that are capped by the king lists of Genesis 4 and 5. Genesis chapter 6 is a messy transition from the king lists to the flood narratives of Genesis 7-9. A detailed reading of chapter 6 calls attention to contextual incongruities. Contextual incongruities are evident of layers of interpretation from different cultural and historical contexts. Here are some examples:

1. God promises to wipe out all people on earth except for Noah’s immediate family, yet Genesis 9 lists Noah’s many descendants and Genesis 10 lists some populations older than the time of Noah.

2. Noah is presented as having only one wife, yet the rulers of Noah’s lineage had two wives.

3. The “covenant” language of Genesis 6:18 reflects a theological development of a much later period than Noah.

4. Historical persons of the archaic world are recast as mythical beings (“Nephilim”) by a late hand on the material. Fallen angels are said to have had sexual relations with humans. This indicates that this chapter has been shaped by a third-century rabbinic source. The historical significance of deified sons is disguised by rabbinic mysticism. The incongruity is evident in Genesis 6:1-4. Here the Nephilim are posed as fallen angels and at the same time they are described as “heroes of days gone by, men of renown.”

The high kings of the ancient Nile were called “sons of God” and this expression is parallel to the “daughters of men.” Such parallelism is typical of Semitic literature. Apparently, the opening material was originally a continuation of the accounts of the ruling lines of Cain and Seth.

The attempt to portray the archaic rulers as an alien supernatural element called “Nephilim” fails because the Bible makes it clear that these are mortal men whose descendants were living with the Horite Hebrew in Hebron. Number 13:33 identifies the Nephilim with the people of Anak. Anak was a ruler, and his “Anakim” people are associated with Kiriath Arba, an ancient name for Hebron, where Sarah resided. Her settlement marked the northern boundary of Abraham’s territory in ancient Edom.

Unfortunately, most Bibles translate Nephilim as “giants” when it should read “great ones.” Nephilim comes from the same root as the Aramaic npyl (naphil) which means great. This is equivalent to the Arabic nfy, meaning hunter. It is said concerning Nimrod that he was a “mighty hunter” or a “mighty man” before the Lord (Gen. 10).

If the word nephilim came from Hebrew naphal, it would not be spelled as we find it. The word nephilim to mean "fallen ones" would be spelled as nephulim. Likewise, nephilim does not mean "those who fall" or "those who fall away" - that would be nophelim. The only way in Hebrew to get nephilim from naphal by the rules of Hebrew morphology would be to presume a noun spelled naphil and then pluralize it. However, this noun does not exist in biblical Hebrew.

However, in Aramaic the noun naphil does exist. It means "giant," making it easy to see why the Septuagint translated nephilim as gigantes ("giants"). The period of 300-200 BC includes the Greek Old Testament (Septuagint) and the First Book of Enoch, both of which gave rise to the idea of fallen angels mysteriously mixing with humans.

The Books of Enoch are 1 Enoch, also known as the "Ethiopic Apocalypse of Enoch" and the Slavonic version that is referred to as 2 Enoch or "The Book of the Secrets of Enoch." 1 Enoch was originally written in Hebrew or Aramaic (probably both), but the only complete copy known today is in Ge'ez, a language of Ethiopia. 1 Enoch dates to no earlier than around 200 BC. The pertinent chapters are 1-36 (The Watchers) and chapters 72-82 (The Astronomical Writings). These books fit Risto Santala's description of literature that, like "the esoteric Qabbalah wandered off the right track in creating a very extensive literature on doctrines of angels and mysteries..."

As for the historically significant elements in chapter 6, we have the three-clan confederation of Noah’s sons: Shem, Ham and Japheth (Gen. 6:10). However, the rabbinic editor seems aware of the marriage and ascendancy pattern of these descendants of Cain and Seth. Noah is assigned but one wife, as are his sons. Yet the rulers among Abraham's ancestors had two wives.

Noah is said to be a good man, whose righteousness exceeds all his contemporaries. Yet he is heartless when it comes to his grandchildren. He saves animals, but his grandchildren are left to die in the flood. Apparently, not all died because in Genesis 9:25 we read that Noah curses Canaan, one of his grandchildren.

It is true that during the time that Noah lived (5000-3000 BC) there were periods of flooding. This has been confirmed by the discovery of boats and boat images in the Sahara. The period is called the “African Humid Period” or “the African Aqualithic.”

Archaeologists have also found evidence that the Proto-Saharan rulers like Noah kept royal menageries of exotic animals. The oldest known zoological collection was found during the 2009 excavations at the shrine city of Nekhen on the Nile. It dates to c. 3800 BC.

If we extricate the historical from the later mystical interpretation, we find that Genesis 6:1-4 describes the early kingdom builders as the “mighty men of old, as “heroes” and “men of renown.” They constructed temples, palaces, fortified shrine cities ("high places"), great stone monuments, and pyramids. They were patrons of the arts, science, agriculture and architecture. They controlled commerce on the major water systems and collected taxes and tribute. The estimated wealth of the High Kings of Egypt exceeds the combined estimated wealth of Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) and J. P. Morgan (1837-1913) at the time of their deaths, which is 675 million. Gold mined by the Egyptians was used to make precious objects found as far from Egypt as Southern China and Ireland.

Evidently, Noah was a ruler during the African Humid Period, a time of flooding across the Fertile Crescent. As a ruler he had access to more than one boat. He and his royal household would have been the first to be saved in the event of a catastrophic flood. He had the resources to save the animals of his royal menagerie. These elements of the flood narratives can be verified by anthropological and archaeological research.

This photo is of a boat constructed of bundles of hollow marsh reeds over a wood frame. Genesis 6:14 states Noah's ark was constructed of גפר (gofer/gopher), which is the word used to describe the reed basket in which Moses floated on the Nile. The hollow reeds make the boat extremely buoyant. Such vessels are still constructed by the marsh Arabs of Iraq and by Nilotic fishermen.