Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Hathor Veneration at Timna

3000 year old fibers found at Timna
(Read more about this discovery in Edom.)

Timna was a copper-rich region associated with the Horites and protected by Egyptians, Edomites, and Midianites. It held a shrine dedicated to Hathor the mother of Horus, and a copper serpent was found there (p. 109). The copper serpent was the totem of the Horite metal workers.

The way the serpent coiled around the staff of Moses reflected the sun's radiance, symbolic of purity. The sun was the emblem of God among the Horite Hebrew. The coiled solar serpent on the staff indicated that Moses was God's appointed leader of the people. Even today, this image appears on the croziers of some bishops in the Church.

The association of copper with serpent is evident is the relationship between the Akkadian words: sibbu - serpent and siparru - copper. The words Hittite and Het share the same primitive root HT. HT is the Hebrew and Arabic root for copper - nahas-het. As an adjective, HT means shining bright, like burnished copper. Nahash (NS) refers to a serpent. The HT copper smiths apparently ranged from Timna to Anatolia in Turkey. The serpent image was sacred for them, just as it was for Moses the Horite Hebrew ruler who fashioned a bronze serpent and set it on the standard (Numbers 21:9).

The mines at Timna are at least 6,000 years old and there are newer ones as well, totaling about 10,000 shafts. The oldest mines were worked almost continuously until the Roman Period. There are ancient rock carvings showing warriors in chariots, holding axes and shields. A temple dedicated to Hathor was discovered at the southwestern edge of Mt. Timna by Professor Beno Rothenberg of Hebrew University.

The highlighted circle marks the location of the Hathor Shrine.

The Chalcolithic metal works at Timna were found at the Wadi Nehushtan in the foothills along the western fringe of the southern Arabah Valley. The smelting works, slag, and flints at this site were found to be identical to those discovered near Beersheba where Abraham spent much of his time. The metal workers of Timna and the metal workers of Beersheba were kin, and the patroness of their mining and smelting operations was the mother of Horus who was venerated or worshiped by the Horites. In other words, these were Horite metal workers. In his book Timna, Rothenberg concluded that the peoples living in the area were "partners not only in the work but in the worship of Hathor." (Timna, p. 183)

During the early Iron Age, a tent-sanctuary appeared at the Hathor shrine. However, according to Nissim Amzallag, "the metallurgical character of this shrine was maintained."

Related reading: "Egyptian Timna - Reconsidered" by Uzi Avner (ANE Studies, Unearthing the Wilderness, edited by Juan Manuel Tebes); The Ra-Horus-Hathor Narrative; The Substance of Abraham's Faith; The Serpent on Moses's Staff

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Were the Horites Descendants of Cain?

Alice C. Linsley ©1981
The Royal Descendants of Adam and Enoch

Alice C. Linsley

The diagram shows that the clans of Cain and Seth intermarried. Genesis 4:22 identifies Tzillah as the mother of Tubal-Cain, "an instructor of every artificer in copper and iron" and his sister was Naamah, Methusaleh's cousin wife.

The metalworking descendants of Tubal-Cain came to be called Kenites. They shared common ancestry withe the descendants of Seth (Sethites), and preserved recognition of their close blood bond. Judges 1:16 identifies Jethro as a Kenite. His daughter Zipporah was Moses's cousin wife. King Saul sought to protect the Kenites by warning them to move away from the city that his army was about to attack (1 Samuel 15:6).

Though the clans of Cain and Seth intermarried and recognized their blood bond and responsibility for mutual defense, they clearly maintained distinct identities. Extra-biblical sources indicate that they also maintained separate shrines and temples, though they worshiped the same God. They were to be governed and judged by the same king. "O King, you have not departed dead, you have departed alive...The Mounds of Horus serve you, the Mounds of Seth serve you." (Utterance 213 of the Ancient Pyramid Texts)

In the Ancient Pyramid Texts (dating to 2000 BC) the Sethites and the Horites form a moiety. The term "moiety" refers to two social or ritual groups into which a people is divided. The distinction between the two groups is evident in PT Utterance 424: "O King, a boon which the King grants, that you occupy the Mounds of Horus, that you travel about the Mounds of Seth..."

Utterance 308 also addresses the Sethites and Horites as separate entities: "Hail to you, Horus in the Horite Mounds! Hail to you, Horus in the Sethite Mounds!"

PT Utterance 470 contrasts the Horite mounds with the mounds of Seth, designating the Horite Mounds "the High Mounds." Here we find a suggestion that the Horite Hebrew were named for their devotion to Horus (HR). In the Ancient Egyptian language HR means the Most High One.

Utterance 424 continues, "that you [King] sit on your iron throne and judge their affairs at the head of the Great Ennead which is in On." On is mentioned in Genesis 41:45. Joseph married Asenath, a daughter of the High Priest of On.

The extent of the King's authority is considerable, and without limits were he to rise from the dead. In his resurrection body he is to "traverse the Mound of Horus of the Southerners" and "traverse the Mound of Horus of the Northerners." (PT Utterances 536 and 553) The risen king is expected to restore his settlements and cities, and open doors to the Westerners, Easterners, Northerners and Southerners (Pt Utterance 587). He is to "betake himself to the Mansion of the Most High (HR) which is in the firmament" (PT Utterance 539).

The risen king unites the peoples, restores the former state of blessedness, and unites heaven and earth. When seen from this perspective, the Horite religion appears to be the foundation of the Messianic hope that is fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth.

If the Sethites are descendants of Seth, might we assume that the Horites are descendants of Cain?

In this 1924 paper published by Hebrew Union College, Dr. E. Taubler noted that ancient Egyptian inscriptions make it clear that the Horites were scattered over the whole land of Canaan (p. 7).

Josephus reported that the Horites were descendants of Abraham and his cousin wife, Keturah, and, quoting an ancient historian, he portrays them as "conquerors of Egypt and founders of the Assyrian Empire." Keturah was from the region of Beersheba.

Genesis 36 identifies Edom (Idumea) as another territory under Horite rule. Abraham's territory was entirely in the region of ancient Edom.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

The Afro-Asiatic Conception of Purity

Sunlight through the windows of the Basilica of La Sagrada Familia in Barcelona

Alice C. Linsley

How are we to explain the prevalence of blood sacrifice performed by a priest caste and a concern for ritual purity among peoples as geographically separated as the ancient Egyptians, the Sarki of Nepal, and some Native Americans? How do we explain similar conceptions of the sun as a purifying agent, and linguistic points of contact among widely dispersed peoples?

We might point to the common point of origin of all humans in Africa and to the development of languages from the Afro-Asiatic root stock. A comparison of the lexicons of Afro-Arabian and Semitic languages with Sanskrit and Dravidian suggests that a vast Afro-Asiatic Dominion stretched from the Wet Sahara to Asia between 12,000 and 10,000 years ago. One explanation is a common trade language.

An example of how languages are influenced by trade is the early traffic in rice from the NIle Valley to Madagascar and beyond. The language of Madagascar is Sulawe. It is related to ancient Egyptian, Dravidian, and East African words for rice.

The term "Sulawesi" appears to be related to the words write or rice records. Merchants who were moving from island to island recorded their transactions. Sulawe resembles the Egyptian word for writing ssw; and the Mande sewe; and the Dravidian ha-verasu. These terms referr to written records of rice sales or commercial records.

Rice grain formed the basis of weight measurement from East Africa to Sulawesi. On Madagascar, the weight of one grain of rice is called vary, and corresponds to the Swahili wari and to the Dravidian verasu. The Tamil word for rice is arisi, and the Old Persian word is virinzi which closely resembles vrini, the Sanskrit word for rice.

Linguistic connections are evident also in the term for the slash and burn agriculture used in Sulawesi and East Africa.The word trematrema is used in Northeast Betsimisaraa (Madagascar) to refer to a one to three year old slashed-and-burnt field. It is related to the Swahili word tema, ‘to cut’, and the redoubled form tematema, ‘to slash, to chop'.

Another explanation for common conceptions and roots is the blood-related Afro-Asiatic kingdom builders. They established their territories near major water systems which they used to transport cargo and to collect tariffs on cargo moved through their territories. Their influence can be traced using comparative linguistics and kinship analysis.

In this post we will look at the evidence of common conceptions of purity among the dispersed Afro-Asiatics.

Afro-Asiatic languages include Akkadian, Amharic, ancient Egyptian, Arabic, Aramaic, Assyrian, Babylonian, Berber, Chadic, Cushitic, Ethiopic, Hahm, Hausa, Hebrew, Omotic, Phoenician, and Ugaritic. These languages appear to share a large  number of common roots. Because this is so, linguists are able to compare the languages and draw conclusions about the older “proto” Afro-Asiatic language and dialects spoken before 10,000 years ago.

The terms for ritual purity in Akkadian, Biblical Hebrew, Hittite, Sumerian, and Ugaritic are related to the idea of radiance. (See The Semantics of Purity in the Ancient Near East, p. 5.) The ancient Nilotes also associated purity with the radiance of the sun, the emblem of the Re (which means Father) and his son Horus.

The temple purification rituals of the ancient Near East resemble the Pharaoh's daily ceremonial toilet in preparation for morning prayer. The ruler's lustration came from exposure to the Sun, the emblem of the Most High God and his son.

Likewise, the ancient Egyptian priest was to be purified before entering the temple. 

Herodotus observed that "The Egyptians were the first who made it a point of religion not to lie with women in temples, nor to enter into temples after going away from women without first bathing." (II:64)

The priests of ancient Egypt maintained shrines and temples along the Nile and regarded ritual purity as essential to their ministry. Herodotus observed II:37:
"They are religious excessively beyond all other men, and with regard to this they have customs as follows: they drink from cups of bronze and rinse them out every day, and not some only do this but all: they wear garments of linen always newly washed, and this they make a special point of practice: they circumcise themselves for the sake of cleanliness, preferring to be clean rather than comely. The priests shave themselves all over their body every other day, so that no lice or any other foul thing may come to be upon them when they minister to the gods; and the priests wear garments of linen only and sandals of papyrus, and any other garment they may not take nor other sandals; these wash themselves in cold water twice in the day and twice again in the night; and other religious services they perform (one may almost say) of infinite number."
Likewise, Plutarch noted that the “priests of the Sun at Heliopolis never carry wine into their temples, for they regard it as indecent for those who are devoted to the service of any god to indulge in the drinking of wine whilst they are under the immediate inspection of their Lord and King. The priests of the other deities are not so scrupulous in this respect, for they use it, though sparingly.”

Egyptian priests shaved their bodies and heads before their terms of service in the temples. Korah, Moses' half-brother, was a Horite Hebrew priest. Korah means "shaved head" and according to Numbers 16:17-18, he carried the censor to offer incense to the High God.This suggests that kor and tor may be cognates. There is a suggestion of a very early connection between blood, purity, and holiness.

The Hebrew thr = to be pure, corresponds to the Ancient Egyptian tr = pure, and to the Hausa/Hahm toro = clean, and to the Tamil tiru = holy. All appear to be related to the Proto-Dravidian tor = blood. Among these peoples blood was perceived to have power both to pollute and to purify; to condemn and to justify.

Related reading: Purity Seal From Herod's Temple; 2,400 BC Tomb of a Purification Priest; The Origins of Animal Sacrifice; The Red Heifer; The Priesthood is About the Blood; Blood and Water; The Sun and the Moon in Genesis; Avraham Faust, "Purity and Impurity in Iron Age Israel, Biblical Archaeology Review" (2019)

Saturday, March 21, 2020

The Royal Descendants of Adam and Enoch

Analysis of the Marriage and Ascendancy Pattern of Abraham’s Ancestors
Alice C. Linsley ©1981

The diagram shows marriage between of the ruling lines of Cain and Seth (Adam’s sons) and the descendants of their wives, the daughters of Enoch, a contemporary of Adam.

The left side of the diagram lists Cain’s descendants (Gen. 4), and the right side lists Seth’s descendants (Gen. 5). 

The king lists of Genesis 4 and 5 must be studied together to understand the marriage and ascendancy pattern of these early rulers. 

Each ruler had two wives. One wife was a half-sister (as was Sarah to Abraham), and the second wife was a patrilineal cousin (as was Keturah to Abraham). The cousin bride named her first-born son after her father.

Naamah was Methuselah's cousin bride. She named heir first-born son Lamech, after her father.

The line of the cousin wife can be traced through the cousin bride’s naming prerogative. For example: Irad’s daughter married her patrilineal cousin and named their first born son Jared after her father. Irad (YRD) and Jared (YRD) are linguistically equivalent names.

Analysis of the kinship pattern reveals that these biblical rulers had a double unilineal descent pattern in which both the patrilineage and the matrilineage are recognized and honored, but in different ways.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Rulers From Cain to Jesus

Alice C. Linsley

Proto-Saharan and Kushite rulers controlled a vast Afro-Asiatic Dominion from Africa to the Indus River Valley. Nimrod was a Kushite ruler (Gen.10) who left the Nile Valley and established his territory in the Tigris-Euphrates region. The movement of the Nilotic peoples out of Africa has been verified by DNA studies, linguistic studies and migration studies.

This map from Clyde A. Winters' Study of Haplogroup R-M173 shows the spread of the Proto-Saharan peoples and the Kushite rulers. The marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Kushite kings helped to drive the out of Africa. According to that pattern, at least one royal son was sent-away from his homeland to establish a kingdom of his own. Sent-away sons in the Bible include Cain, Abraham, Moses and David.

Cain is presented as the royal descendant of the historical Adam and Eve. Cain is designated as one who has dominion, like Adam. In the context of Cain's Neolithic culture his rule would have been seen as divine appointment. This may be why the biblical writer mentioned God's protection of Cain as he wanders away from his home.

Divine appointment and protection of rulers was portrayed on ancient Nilotic monuments as divine overshadowing of the sun, the emblem of the Creator. This status pertained to rulers only who were expected to reflect the glory of the Creator. In the image above, a king is show between Horus and his mother Hathor. Note that Hathor is overshadowed as the Woman to bring forth the Seed of God (Gen. 3:15) She foreshadows the Virgin Mary who conceived by divine overshadowing (Luke 1:35).

Among Abraham's Proto-Saharan ancestors, status and occupation were received from the father. As the "son" of Adam, Cain hold the status and occupation of a king ruling over a territory. Among the Proto-Saharan rulers bloodline was traced through the mother (as even today among Jews). In claiming that Cain was the offspring of Eve, his bloodline is traced back to Eden. As a ruler of Eden, Cain's status in the Bible cannot be overlooked or denied.

If Adam is the first to rule on earth, then Cain is the second ruler. That the Bible grants Cain ruler status is evident from a study of what Cain symbolizes in Scripture. When Jude warns early followers of Jesus not to abandon Christ because of their sufferings, he uses three men as examples: Cain the ruler, Balaam the prophet, and Korah the priest. These were the three most sacred offices among Abraham’s people and they were sometimes filled by people corrupted by the world.

Genesis 3-5 is about a specific group of rulers, the ancestors of the Horite Hebrew. Genesis 4 lists the kings descended from Cain by his cousin wife, the daughter of Enoch/Nok. Genesis 5 lists the kings descended from Seth by his cousin wife, another daughter of Enoch/Nok. These two ruler lines intermarried (endogamy) and because Abel apparently did not survive to the age of marriage, the clans of Cain and Seth appear to be a matrimonial moiety.

This is supported by the evidence of ancient texts in which the Sethites and Horites maintain separate shrines (mounds) as separate ritual groups yet one people serving the same God.

Utterance 308 of the Pyramid Texts addresses the Horites and Sethites as separate groups: "Hail to you, Horus in the Horite Mounds! Hail to you, Horus in the Sethite Mounds!"

Utterance 470 of the Pyramid Texts contrasts the Horite and Sethite mounds, designating the Horite mounds "the High Mounds."

The two groups are separate yet related, suggesting a moiety. The term "moiety" refers to two social or ritual groups into which a people is divided. The distinction between the two groups is evident in PT Utterance 424: "O King, a boon which the King grants, that you occupy the Mounds of Horus, that you travel about the Mounds of Seth..." Here we find a suggestion that the Horite Hebrew were named for their devotion to the son of God who the Nilotes called Horus (HR- Most High One). Among the Horites of Mesopotamia he was called Enki.

That both groups serve the same king is evident from PT Utterance 213: "O King, you have not departed dead, you have departed alive...The Mounds of Horus serve you, the Mounds of Seth serve you."

Utterance 424 of the Pyramid Texts continues, "that you [King] sit on your iron throne and judge their affairs at the head of the Great Ennead which is in On." Though separate, the Horites and the Sethites are judged by a common king.

The Historical Noah

The historical Noah emerges more clearly when we place him in the context of a Proto-Saharan ruler who lived approximately 5500 years ago when the Sahara experienced a wet period (African Humid Period). This is the period of the Old Kingdom, a time of great cultural and technological achievement in Egypt. The population of Egypt under the first dynasties was between 1 and 2 million inhabitants. Edward S. Ellis put the New Kingdom population at 5 million. The author of the Royal Ontario Museum website gives an estimate of between 1.5 and 5 million Egyptians during the Pyramid Age.

Noah was a descendant of the Proto-Saharan rulers named in Genesis 4 and 5. Likely, he ruled in the region of Bor-Nu (Land of Noah) near Lake Chad. This is the only place on Earth where the natives claim to live in Noah's homeland. This part of Africa was much wetter in Noah's time.

Proto-Saharan rulers kept menageries of exotic animals. These animals were greatly prized as they were brought from great distances and and were a source of amusement to the royal court. Likely the animals taken by Noah onto the ark were animals from his personal zoo.

The rulers of the old world imposed taxes on cargo that moved through the water systems of their territories. They used the interconnected lakes and rivers to expand their kingdoms and to spread their worldview. The Kushite kingdom builder Nimrod is an example. His father Kush controlled a region of the Upper Nile. According to Genesis 10:8-12, Nimrod left the Nile Valley and built his kingdom along the Tigris in Mesopotamia. The language of his territory was Akkadian. In Akkadian the term for ruler-priest is Abru, from which the term Hebrew is derived.

Noah was the grandfather of Kush, so we should not be surprised to find him in Africa. Cain, Noah, Kush, Nimrod, Abraham, Moses, David are the ancestors of Mary's family and that she too was of the ruler-priest lineage was admitted even by those who hated her. In the Talmud it is said about Mary: “She who was the descendant of princes and governors played the harlot with carpenters.” (Sanhedrin 106a)

The Search for Noah's Ark

Noah's ark has never been found. People are not looking in the region of Noah's homeland. The evidence suggests that Noah's ark came to rest on Mount Meni (Har Meni, not Armenia) in northeast Tanzania. This mountain is called Mount Meru.

Mount Meru in October

Even if the search moved to East Africa, it is not likely that the Ark of Noah would be found since it was made of  mostly of reeds which degrade quickly. Noah's ark would be more than 5000 years old. A reed boat would quickly disintegrate in 2 seasonal wet periods on Mount Meru; one from March to May and another from October to November.

The Sons and Descendants of Noah

The sons of Noah continued the matrimonial moeity. The lines of Ham and Shem intermarried. Their descendants were great rulers also. One of the greatest was Nimrod, a Kushite kingdom builder, whose territory in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley was extensive. Abraham is a descendant of these Kushite rulers. Their ruler-priest caste was called habiruwhich is derived from the Akkadian word for priest: abru. The caste was called abrutu in the language of Nimrod's territory in Mesopotamia. They represent the oldest known order of priests and Jesus Christ is a descendant of their ruler-priest lines.

Related reading:  The Substance of Abraham's Faith, The Ra-Horus-Hathor Narrative; Appointment By Divine OvershadowingThe Migration of Abraham's Ancestors; Sub-Saharan DNA of Modern Jews

Saturday, March 7, 2020

No More Comments Here

As my work load has become heavier it is impossible to moderate and respond to comments at my 7 blogs. Therefore, I encourage readers to join the international Facebook group The Bible and Anthropology where you are welcome to ask questions, post comments, critique material, and pursue topics of interest.

I apologize if you have not had a comment appear here. There is a large backlog because the Facebook Forum, and my research and writing take more time than I anticipated.

After this week, comments will be closed at this blog.

I am extremely grateful for you and hope you will continue to read the posts at Just Genesis. Please consider joining us at the Facebook group.

Alice C. Linsley

Monday, February 24, 2020

The Two Brides of Christ

Alice C. Linsley

Some promote the Church as the only bride of Messiah because they believe that Israel is subsumed in the Church. Supercessionism holds that the Church replaces or completes God's prior covenants described in the Hebrew scriptures. It suggests that Christianity is disconnected from its origin among Abraham's Horite Hebrew ruler-priest caste who anticipated a Righteous Ruler who would overcome death and lead his people to eternal life in an eternal kingdom.

St. Paul speaks of the Gentiles being grafted into Abraham (not Judaism) so it is not likely that Abraham (who represents the faithful of Israel) is subsumed to the Church. Look at what St. Paul says to Gentiles in Romans 11:17-18 - "But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, although a wild olive shoot, were grafted in among the others and now share in the nourishing root of the olive tree, 18 do not be arrogant toward the branches. If you are, remember it is not you who support the root, but the root that supports you."

Paul also writes, "This mystery is that through the gospel the Gentiles are heirs together with Israel, members together of one body, and sharers together in the promise in Christ Jesus. (Ephesians 3:6) That body is Christ and his kingdom.

Hebrew rulers with two wives include Lamech, Terah, Abraham, Esau, Jacob, Amram, Moses, Elkanah (Samuel's father), Ashur (1 Chronicles 4:5), Mered (1 Chronicles 4); and Joash (2 Chronicles 24:1–3). Caleb fathered children by his wives Azubah and Jerioth.

This diagram of a "nuclear family" is not typical of the biblical rulers since those rulers had two wives and the offspring of the wives often married. Abraham, for example, married his half-sister Sarah. They had the same father but different mothers (Gen. 20:12).

The diagram below shows the typical marriage arrangement. Lamech, a descendant of Cain, had two wives (Gen. 4). His daughter Namaah married her cousin Methuselah. As the cousin bride it was her prerogative to name their first born son Lamech after her father (Gen. 5). Since cousin brides were usually the second wife, it is likely that Methuselah already had a wife. The first born son of the first wife was Methuselah's proper heir. The first born son of the second wife belonged to the household of his maternal grandfather who he served.

It should be noted that the two-wife pattern pertained only to rulers and ruler-priests. There is no evidence that the average males had more than one wife. Because of the need for a proper heir in succession, marriage arrangements for rulers have always been different than for commoners.

Some have wondered if this pattern doesn't endorse polygamy. That argument cannot be made since the pattern pertained only to rulers. When a commoner takes more than one wife, as in Mormonism and among Muslims, he sets himself up as a ruler, attempting to gain social status. That is an act of hubris.

Analysis of the marriage and ascendancy pattern of Jesus' Horite Hebrew people suggests that Christ has two brides: those who believed and lived in anticipation of the appearing of the Seed of God (Gen. 3:15) and those who believe Jesus is that promised Son of God. The first group is represented by Abraham, Moses, the priest Simeon, the prophetess Anna, and John the Baptist.The second group is embodied by the faithful of the Church. In the sacrament of the cup, the Church receives the promise sealed by Christ's blood. The faith of both brides is fixed on a single promise established and confirmed by the blood of God's appointed sacrifice.

Supercessionism is opposed by Antinomianism, the view that the old covenant laws have been abrogated. Another view holds that there are two separate covenants: one for Jews and another for Gentiles. The covenant that matters to Jews is that associated with Moses, but Moses' father married two wives - Jochebed and Ishar - according to the pattern of his Hebrew forefathers, his Horim.

This pattern of two wives is characteristic of the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Horim/ Horite Hebrew. The wives maintained separate households on a north-south axis. Their households marked the northern and southern boundaries of the ruler’s territory. Sarah was Abraham’s half-sister bride. She resided in Hebron. Keturah was Abraham’s cousin bride. She resided to the south in Beersheba.

Among Jesus Hebrew ancestors, the second marriage and the coronation of the royal heir were connected events. The heir ascended only after taking his second bride. The second bride was genetically more distant than his first bride. The first bride was a half-sister, as was Sarah to Abraham (Gen. 20:12). The Church is the cousin bride and the coming marriage feast marks Jesus Messiah's coronation in his eternal kingdom.

Jesus alluded to the marriage of the Church at the Last Supper. He told his disciples, “Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. I tell you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father’s kingdom” (Matt 26:27-29). Jesus is here referring to the marriage customs of his Horite Hebrew people.

When a Jewish man proposes marriage, he gives her a contract, a ketubah. These are beautifully produced and hang in the new couple's home. The contract includes promises. If the bride agrees, the bridegroom hands her a cup of wine, and if she drinks from the cup the marriage is sealed. He then says to her “I will not drink of this cup until we are reunited.”

In ancient times, the contract stated the price the groom would pay for his bride. In the case of both of Jesus' brides, the price was His eternal blood.

Analysis of the marriage and ascendancy pattern of Jesus' Horite people suggests that Christ has two brides: those who believed and lived in anticipation of the appearing of the Seed of God (Gen. 3:15) and those who believe Jesus is the Son of God and live in anticipation of His coming again to establish his eternal kingdom. The first group can be traced in Scripture from Jesus' Hebrew ancestors to the priest Simeon, the prophetess Anna, and John the Baptist.The second group is embodied in the Church and that promise is sealed by the cup of Christ's blood received in faith. The faith of both brides is fixed on a single promise established and confirmed by the blood of God.

The Two Flocks of Christ

The ruler-priests had two wives living in separate settlements with separate flocks. Together these two camps constituted the ruler's kingdom. In the event of attack, the ruler's line was more likely to survive if divided into two camps. This very fear of being "cut off from the earth" motivated Jacob to divide his household into two groups when returning to Canaan (Gen. 32).

Jesus, the Good Shepherd, speaks to the Jews of having sheep in another fold (John 10:16). Both folds live in expectation of the Son of God, who through His death and resurrection, leads all his sheep to the same eternal kingdom.

Related reading: Righteous Rulers and the Resurrection; The Substance of Abraham's FaithMoses' Horite FamilyIsrael and the Church; Yes, Georgia, There is a Kingdom; Who is Jesus?Water and Blood; No Kingdom By Deception; Kushite Kings and the Kingdom of God; The Cousin Bride's Naming PrerogativeMary's Ruler-Priest Lineage