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Saturday, January 15, 2011

Who Were the Horites?

Alice C. Linsley

The Horites were a caste of ruler-priests who controlled the trade routes from the Sahara to India. Originally, they controlled the major waters systems at a time when the Sahara, Arabia and Mesopotamia were wetter. Commerce moved along the rivers which were interconnected in the late Holocene. These shrine and temple attendants kept records, recorded measurements, and collected taxes on cargo shipped from shrine city to shrine city.

The Horites served as river shrine and temple attendants. They interceded for others and offered sacrifice. Job offered sacrifice daily for the sins of his own family. At the end of the book, God tells Job to pray for his kinsmen Eliphaz, Zophar and Bildad. This is reminiscent of Abraham praying for Abimelech and his whole household (Gen. 20:17,18). Purity of life was an essential trait of the Horite priest.

The word "Horite" takes many forms: Har, Harwa, Khar, Hur, Horonaim, Horoni, Horowitz, Horim, and Hori. Hori was the son of Lotan son of Seir whose descendants were the "lords of the Horites in the land of Seir" according to Genesis 36:20-29 and 1 Chronicles 1:38-42. Lot, Lotan, and Nimlot are Egyptian titles. Nimlot C was the High Priest of Amun at Thebes during the latter part of the reign of his father Osorkon II.

The Horite kings of Edom are listed in Genesis 36. Here is a diagram of the lines descending from Seir the Horite. Note that there are two men named Esau.

Abraham was a Horite Habiru/Hebrew whose territory extended between Hebron and Beersheba, entirely in the land of Edom. The Horites of Edom were his kinsmen.

The Horites were devotees of HR (Hor, Hur or Horus) whose mother Hathor conceived by the overshadowing of the sun, the Creator's emblem. Horus is the archetype by which Abraham's descendants would recognize Jesus as the promised Seed of the Woman (Gen. 3:15). Jesus' authentication was His rising from the dead on the third day, in accordance with Horite expectation. As St. Augustine noted, the Egyptians took great care in the burial of their dead and never practiced cremation, as in the religions that seek to escape physical existence. Abraham's ancestors believed in the resurrection of the body and awaited a deified king who would rise from the grave and deliver his people from death.

Hathor's animal totem was a cow. She is shown at the Dendura Temple holding her newborn son in a manger or stable. The stable was constructed by the Horite priest Har-si-Atef. Atef was the crown worn by deified rulers. The Arabic word atef or atif means "kind." The ruler who wore the "atef" crown was to embody kindness and he was to unite the peoples.

Horite belief in a deified son who would embody kindness and unite the peoples found fulfillment in Jesus Christ, a descendant of the Horite ruler-priests, the divine son of the Virgin Mary, daughter of the priest Joachim of the line of Nathan. Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of the promise made to Abraham's Horite ancestors in Eden (Gen. 3:15). This is why Frank Moore Cross cannot avoid the conclusion that the God of Israel is the God of the Horites.

Consider how Horus, the mythical archetype of Christ, describes himself in the Coffin texts (passage 148): I am Horus, the great Falcon upon the ramparts of the house of him of the hidden name. My flight has reached the horizon. I have passed by the gods of Nut. I have gone further than the gods of old. Even the most ancient bird could not equal my very first flight. I have removed my place beyond the powers of Set, the foe of my father Osiris. No other god could do what I have done. I have brought the ways of eternity to the twilight of the morning. I am unique in my flight. My wrath will be turned against the enemy of my father Osiris and I will put him beneath my feet in my name of 'Red Cloak'. (Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt by R.T. Rundle Clark, p. 216)

Here we find the words of Psalm 110:1, a messianic reference: The Lord says to my Lord: "Sit at My right hand until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet."

Horus, son of Ra, was venerated at the Predynastic shrine city of Nekhen.

Horus, whose totem was the falcon, was known by many titles. He was called the "Son of God," "Horus of the Two Crowns," "Horus of the Two Horizons," and he was associated with the three superior planets Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Mars was named "Horus of the Horizon" or "Horus the Red." Jupiter was called "Horus Who Illuminates the Two Lands." Saturn was named "Horus, Bull of the Sky." The three superior planets were always depicted with the falcon-head of Horus (Krupp 1979).

Horus soaring as a falcon above the Sun (Ra's emblem) in their solar boat

Horite religious ideas spread across the ancient Afro-Asiatic Dominion, but originated in the Upper Nile region. Abraham's ancestors came from the Nile region which was later called Kush. His father Terah is associated with the Nubian Ainu who had a red skin tone. We first meet Abraham in the Ur-Haran region because he is a descendant of Nimrod who built a vast kingdom in Mesopotamia. Nimrod was a son of Kush. Likely he is Sargon the Great. Sar-gon means King of Kings or Most High King.

Horite does not designate a race or ethnicity. It designates a caste of rulers and priests. Jews are one group that descended from the Horites. That is why Jews call their ancestors horim. Some Jews and some Arabs have a common Horite ancestry.

The ancient world of the Afro-Asiatics was structured along caste lines. Typical of castes, the Horite lines exclusively intermarried (endogamy). The geneologies of the Bible reveal that intermarriage of the ruler-priests lines continued to the time of Jesus. Jesus is the culmination of the Horim's expectation of the fulfillment of the Edenic Promise. (Gen. 3:15)

It is from the Horite priesthood that the priesthood of Israel developed. Moses' two brothers, Korah and Aaron, were Horite priests before Judaism emerged as a distinct world religion, even before Israel can be identified as a nation. Horite priests served in the temple in Jerusalem on a rotating schedule. I Chronicles 4:4 lists Hur (Hor) as the "father of Bethlehem". The author of Chronicles knew that Bethlehem was originally a Horite settlement in the heart of Horite territory.

The word Horite is related to the Egyptian 'khar', a measurement of fuel used in burnt offerings and to a measurement of volume - gr - used across the ancient Afro-Asiatic Dominion. Khar is likely also related to the Egyptian word for priest harwa and to the word korah. One of Moses' older brothers was Korah and he was a Horite priest. Korah means "shaved head" and according to Numbers 16:17-18, Korah carried the censor to offer incense before God. This suggests that kor and tor are cognates.

Kor/Korah andTor/Torah both appear be related to blood sacrifice and the Horite priesthood. The Hebrew root thr = to be pure, corresponds to the Hausa/Hahm toro = clean, and to the Tamil tiru = holy. All are related to the proto-Dravidian tor = blood. The Horite priest was to be purified before entering the temple. The purification ritual involved shaving their heads and bodies.

Josephus calls the descendants of Abraham by Keturah "Horites" and quoting another ancient historian, speaks of them as "conquerors of Egypt and founders of the Assyrian Empire." Doubtless this is a reference to Nimrod (Sargon the Great) who established for himself a vast empire in Sumeria. Josephus failed to note, however, that the Horites already existed before Abraham married Keturah. They are Abraham's Kushite ancestors who spread the Proto-Gospel across the ancient Afro-Asiatic Dominion. The origins of Messianic expectation can be traced to Abraham's Horite ancestors.

Horite men married only Horite women and according to a pattern which was tied to ancient tradition. It is not a coincidence that Joseph married Asenath, the daughter of "the priest of On" (Gen. 41:45). The exclusive intermarriage between Horite lines requires that we take these words quite literally: "For me you shall be a kingdom of priests, a holy nation." (Ex. 19:6)

Special care was taken in the selection of the wives of the firstborn sons, and each ruler-priest had four firstborn sons. The firstborn son of the half-sister wife ascended to the throne of his biological father. The firstborn son of the patrilineal cousin or niece ascended to the throne of this maternal grandfather (as did Nimrod, who ascended to the throne of Nimrod the Elder). Nimrod the Younger was named by his mother after her father. This was done only by the cousin/niece brides, so while Nimrod's father is not known, we know that his mother was the daughter of the Kushite ruler Nimrod the Elder who conquer Nippur in 2340.

The firstborn sons by the ruler's two concubines, and sons by wives who didn't ascend to established thrones, were given gifts and sent away to conquer territories of their own. Sent-away sons include Cain, Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Joseph and Moses. By this means the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Horites drove the Kushite expansion out of Africa.

The Horite Priesthood

We have no evidence that Horite priests performed the Canaanite practices condemned by the Biblical prophets, who were their descendants. Horite priests were concerned about purity, especially when preparing for their time of service in the temple.

Horite priests were asked to pray for people because they were recognized as especially holy people. Abraham was asked to pray for Abimelech's household and Job was asked by God to pray for his friends. So the Horite priest's work involved intercessory prayer. That prayer sometimes involved sacrifice. Righteous Job offered sacrifice on behalf of his whole family.

Horite priests are also recognized as shepherds. They kept sheep for the sacrifice and maintained shrines at water systems where they could sustain their flocks. This is why the Horite leaders met their wives at wells.

The trial of Job, in which Satan acts as the accuser, parallels Zechariah 3:2-6 where Satan accuses the High Priest Yeshua. In Yeshua's trial, God acquits Yeshua and commands that he be clothed in clean garments and crowned with 2 crowns (ataroth).

The correspondence between the Horus Myth and the story of Jesus can be explained in two ways. Either Christians borrowed the Horus myth or Christianity emerges in an organic way from the belief system of Abraham and his Horite people. If we decide that Christians borrowed the Horus myth, we must explain why they should have selected this particular myth. There are other great world myths that could have served as the pattern for the story of Jesus. I know of no other religions that prefigure Jesus Christ, the Son of God, other than the faith of Israel as it emerges out of the faith of Abraham's Horite people.

Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and that He will receive an eternal kingdom from the Father. He is the Son of God, the fulfillment of the Edenic Promise of Genesis 3:15. He is able to conquer death and deliver sinners from the curse of death. This is the core of Christian belief. Surrounding this are attendant beliefs which logically follow. One is that to receive eternal life, we must acknowledge our need for mercy, forgiveness and salvation. Another is that God does this for us out of His boundless love. John wrote, "This is the revelation of God's love for us, that God sent his only Son into the world that we might have life through him." (1 John 4:9)

When Abraham went to the land of Canaan he did not abandon the tradition of his ancestors. He continued the marriage pattern of his Horite people, believing the promise made to them in Eden that the Seed of the Woman would be born of their bloodlines. That is why Abraham married his half-sister (Sarah) and his patrilineal cousin (Keturah), following the pattern of his ruler-priest ancestors. The Horites anticipated the coming of the Son of God to earth and believed that He would be born of their priestly bloodlines. That is why the lines of priests intermarrried exclusively and why unchaste daughters of priests were burned alive (Lev. 21:9). Sexual impurity was not tolerated.

Joseph, Jacob's first-born son by Rachel, married Asenath, the chaste daughter of a priest of Heliopolis (city of the Sun). Heliopolis, which was called Lunu by the Greeks, was a shrine city of Horus. Lunu means place of pillars because the temple of Heliopolis was constructed with many pillars. Heliopolis (Biblical On) was the most prestigious Horite center in the ancient world. The pyramids of Giza, Saqqara and Abisur are all aligned to the obelisk at Heliopolis.

In the ancient world Horite priests were known for their purity and devotion to the High God whose emblem was the Sun. Plutarch wrote that the “priests of the Sun at Heliopolis never carry wine into their temples, for they regard it as indecent for those who are devoted to the service of any god to indulge in the drinking of wine whilst they are under the immediate inspection of their Lord and King. The priests of the other deities are not so scrupulous in this respect, for they use it, though sparingly.”

Related reading: Moses' Horite Family Samuel's Horite Family; The Pattern of Two WivesWho is Jesus?; The Horite Ancestry of Jesus MessiahHorite Deified SonsSent-Away SonsThe Genesis Record of Horite Rule; Petra Reflects Horite Belief; Abraham and Job: Horite Rulers; The Hapiru Were Devotees of Hor;  The Enigma of Joseph; Kushite Wives


Sean said...


Numbers has Aaron dying on Mount Hor where Moses transfers his garments to Eleazar. Wikipedia suggests one meaning to Aaron's name derives from the mountain. (From the mountain: In Hebrew הר har, which may refer to place of his own death.[6]) Have you commented on this combination of words before? Is the Hor of Mt Hor the Hor of Horus (I can't believe I just wrote that) or is it derivative of the word for mountain (hebrew and arabic are similar).

Alice C. Linsley said...

It makes sense that the Mount where Aaron died should be called Jabal Harun, or Aaron's Mountain. Harun is the Arabic equivalent of Aaron. As Aaron and his half-brother Korah were both Horite priests, we can consider that their names are related to the deity they served, who was Horus, called the "Son of God." He is the prefiguring of Jesus Christ.

The Arabic word for mountain is jabal, but in the biblical material that comes from Abraham's people har designates mountain. The Horites offered sacrifice on the tops of mountains so the word for mountain is also related to Horus.

Among Abraham's Horite ancestors the ideal time and place to worship was on the top of a mountain either at high noon or at midnight. Noon and midnight are the center of the solar day and night, and the mountain top is the center between heaven and earth. The sign of TNT symbolizes the Horite conception of the sacred center. This image shows the sun at the center of an east-west line and resting on the peak of a mountain.

Read more here:

Kelly said...

You suggest that the Horites were a dark-skinned race which is actually just the opposite of what the Bible suggests. Strong’s Concordance gives two Hebrew meanings for Horite. The first meaning is “white” and the second meaning is “cave-dweller.” It is extremely unlikely that the Horites were “cavemen” in the traditional sense of the word. Like the people of Petra, they were probably a race that cut their homes and buildings into the sides of cliffs, which would have been very logical considering the extreme heat of where they lived.

I quite agree that the Horites at one time inhabited Egypt as the “Wetjeset-hor” or elder race of Egypt, as is told in the tale of Sep Tepi (“the first time”) that is recorded in the Edfu texts. Theirs would have been the race that was displaced by the people who began dynastic Egypt.

The Horite race would have undoubtedly been dedicated to “the Amen, the faithful and true witness; the beginning of the creation of God” (Rev. 3:14) who was the earliest known God of Egypt and the deity originally credited with creation. Amen was evidently known and worshipped long before dynastic Egypt ever came onto the scene. According to the Edfu texts, the original God of creation was worshipped eons before the gods of the Egyptian Ogdoad or the Ennead were established by dynastic Egypt.

According to Wallace Budge, there was originally a small and rather unobtrusive temple dedicated to Amen at Thebes which was primarily a place of pilgrimage for people from all over the Middle East. Then, circa 2250 BC Egypt was invaded by Narim Sin of Sumer (the grandson of Sargon the Great) and he destroyed Ra’s temple complex at Heliopolis.

Ra’s priesthood in turn attacked Thebes and either drove off or murdered the priesthood dedicated to the original Amen. Ra then took the name of Amen and attached it to his own name as a prefix becoming “Amen Ra.” With the addition of ‘Amen” to his name, Ra’s priesthood then declared that it was Ra who had created the Universe.

This curious form of identity theft was evidently par for the course. It’s an historical fact that Ra, the Egyptian sun god had assumed the names of at least seventy-five known gods before Egypt fell to Greece and Rome.

The original Amen of Egypt was called “the Great Cackler” and his animal totem was the goose. It was said that Amen “laid the egg of Creation” and according to the Edfu texts, the Giza Plateau (the “Rostau”) was originally known as “The Island of the Egg.”

Egypt was then attacked by “the great leaping serpent” and Ta (an old spelling for Ptah) and Wa (undoubtedly an alternative spelling for Ra) attacked the Island of the Egg, killing its original inhabitants and took the Giza Plateau over.

If the Horites were indeed the descendant from original elder race of Egypt, I suspect they would have despised the gods of dynastic Egypt

Alice C. Linsley said...

Welcome to Just Genesis, Kelly. You make several good points.

The Horites originated in the Nile valley of Sudan as is evidenced by the oldest known Horite shrine and temple at Nekhen (4000 B.C.) Therefore it is doubtful that they were white. They spread across the Afro-Asiatic Dominion, taking their religious beliefs and practices with them as far as India and Southern Pakistan.

Further the Horites were a caste. One trait of castes is endogamy or exclusive intermarriage. This would have allowed for less variation in skin tone.

Genesis 10:6,7 says that Abraham and his ancestors were descendants of Ham and his son Kush (Cush). Analysis of the Genesis geneologies reveals that the lines of Ham and Shem intermarried exclusively, so Abraham was a descendant of both lines.

Gen. 10:7 says that the Dedanites were the descendants of Kush and they were cave-dwellers. Not all Kushites were cave-dwellers.

You are correct that the Nabateans of Petra were descendants of the Horites who earlier inhabited the hill country of Canaan.

The competition between rulers and their dieties is reflected in the
Old Testament where we find different names for God. However, all the Afro-Asiatics, which includes Sargon the Great, were henotheists. That is, they believed in one supreme creator God who was ruler over the universe and served by lesser divine powers, such as angels.

There were many pilgrimage sites along the Nile, including Elephantine Island, Heliopolis (nxn in Egyptian), Thebes and Karnak. According to the Babylonian Talmud, Abraham's mother was the daughter of a priest associated with Karnak. His name was Karn-evo. Evo (or e-wo)is a suffix indicating "they" so Karn-evo means "they of Karnak."

Alice C. Linsley said...

I forgot to mention that the divine Triad was worshipped at all those shrines and temples. Hor (Horus in Greek), one of the Triad, was called "son" of God. He was worshipped at all of them. Horites were a caste of priests devoted to Horus.

Kelly said...

Hello again, Alice. I evidently forgot I'd made comments at this site. Sorry for leaving you hanging. Please accept my apologies.

You and I are apparently approaching history from two different paths, but that doesn't mean that our paths do not cross for I think ultimately, our views may actually compliment each other.

I view the Horite race as a mixed blood race between the Hurrian sons of Japhet and the Cushite descendents of Ham. In my view, the Babylonian Creation text (the Enuma Elish) tells an important part of the Horite story although I consider that particular text to be very opinionated and not necessarily a fair or realistic version of history. Still, I believe the Enuma Elish gives us the rather one-sided Babylonian version of who the Horites were.

In reference to the Enuma Elish, I take the position that the original Lord Abzu, (the one who was murdered by Ea-Nudimmud) was a Hurrian king married to Tiamat, who was a woman of Cush and an Ethiopian queen of ancient, (very ancient) Egypt.

Unlike the Egyptians, the Babylonian scribes didn't use a double 'a' when they spelled their words and names. In fact, the double 'a' was only regularly used by the Egyptians and the early Hurrians. Obviously, the Babylonian spelling of Tiamat would have been rendered 'TI.A.MAAT' in the Egyptian language, and when we spell her name that way, it takes on a whole new meaning, doesn't it?

The modern-day translators of the Babylonian texts tell us that Tiamat's name is taken from 'tâmtu', following an early form: 'ti'amtum' which represents the 'salt seas.' But if you translated the same name via the Egyptian language, "Tiamat" takes on the persona of "the waters of Nun," i.e. part of the original creation by the original God system, doesn't she?

In the Egyptian religion, the Waters of Nun supposedly represent the 'waters of chaos' in the first creation (Genesis 1) and this indeed tends to mesh with the Babylonian version of the tale where Tiamat is also said to represent 'chaos.' Never-the-less 'chaos' is a totally subjective word and one that readily encourages the human mind to make all sorts of fanciful and imaginative interpretations. Obviously, what represents 'chaos' to one person may represent freedom and truth to another. After all, the name TI.A.MAAT, by Egyptian standards, would represent a woman of truth who is determined to take the straight and narrow path of justice.

In the Babylonian version of the tale, TI.A.MAAT and the original King Abzu have a son who is called "Kingu". When Anu's son, Ea-Nudimmud, murders Kingu's father in his sleep, TI.A.MAAT and her son join forces in a battle against the Mesopotamian "Sons of Anu."

I have found significant historical evidence that "Kingu" represents the Horite race. Racially, he would be the son of a white-skinned Hurrian king and a black-skinned Ethiopian queen and both of these races represent the people who were actually indigenous to Egypt and the Middle East. As both the Ethiopians and the Hurrians were known to be tall, the Horites would have been tall, brown-skinned people, probably very handsome, who in effect would have represented the two elder races of the Middle East and Egypt. In effect both of these races represent the Biblical God system of Genesis One.

We know from countless historical texts that the Anu race ultimately defeats and displaces the indigenous people of the Middle East. The Tribe of Anu are a race of people that history adamantly proves were not indigenous to Egypt or the Middle East, and the Anu race very obviously brought their own god system with them. (And no, they were not "extraterrestrials from Nibiru"…)

The historical texts reveal that there is actually an enormous piece of missing history in the Bible and the Horite race indeed appears to be the missing key.

Alice C. Linsley said...


I'm glad you came back to this post and find your comments fascinating. Do you have any hard evidence that the descendants of Japheth intermarried with the descendants of Ham? The Hungarians claim to be descendants of Japheth and call themsleves the "Magyar." The Magyar are originally a Nilotic tribe and some "Magyar-ab" still live along the Nile. See

The Gilgamesh Epic is not close to the Genesis creation accounts. It is removed culturally from those accounts and comes from a different historical period.

Hur/Hurrians and Hor/Horites are likely cognates. The ancient root is HR and refers to Hor/Horus who these people called "son of God."

Kingu and kingbo are also cognates and originally Kushite words. The gu and gbo are interchangeable in the proto-Kushitic and Akkadian. Consider the African queen "Bilikisu Sungbo" of Eredo. See this:

Please continue to comment here. I value your insights. Thanks!

francien said...

Alice, I read your post about Horites. Fascinating and very helpful. In my reading, I understand that Abraham is a descendant of Shem (Genesis 11). Can you explain how he is a descendant of Ham?

Alice C. Linsley said...


I have answered your excellent question here:

KC said...

Very informative posts which reveal a great deal of research into this field of study.

DDeden said...

Olah is a common Hungarian surname, I was told it means Burnt Offering in Hebrew.

I suspect Hor(-ite) is the root of Hour, the priests were measurers.

Alice Linsley said...


You are right about the Horite priests observing measurements and boundaries. They believed that Horus marked the boundaries and established the "kinds" (essences). He guarded the four directional points and controlled the sea currents and the direction of the winds. The Har-mattan trade wind that blows from the northeast and east across the Sahara was named for Horus. The word is comprised of the biradicals HR for Horus and MT meaning order. The Nilotic peoples were probably the first to invent the sail because the prevailing wind blows south while the Nile (Hapi) flows north. Horus was invoked to send favorable wind. The four winds sometimes appeared as birds at the four quarters of the heavens announcing the accession of Horus' deified ruler on earth. On the walls of Amenemhat's burial chamber at Hawara Horus is depicted at the cardinal points and associated with the resurrection of the ruler. The four forms of Horus are found on top the canopic jars holding the ruler's organs.

Horos (oros in Greek) refers to the boundaries of an area, or a landmark, or a term. From horos come the words hour, horizon, horotely, and horoscope. The association of Horus with the horizon is seen in the word Har-ma-khet, meaning Horus of the Horizon. Today the word horoscope connotes astrology, but the word original meant "observer of the hours", from hora (time or hour) and skopos (observer or watcher).

Wyse Solomon said...

So if all the patriarchs of the Old Testament worshiped Horus, the who is YHWH?

Alice Linsley said...

Horus the divine son of the Creator is certainly very significant for the Horites. They were Nilo-Saharans and in that region this name for God already existed. In 2008 Ethiopians archaeologists discovered a sacrificial altar in Meqaber Ga’ewa, a previously unknown location near the city of Wuqro. The altar bore a royal inscription in Old South Arabian (Dedanite) bearing the name Yeha. Read more here:

Oromo horte of kush said...

Thanks a lot for this article author. I war confused about the 'kalu' or 'qalu' of oromo people. They practise what you said about sucrifice and ever thing they asked for God will be done. Still exercise in borena Oromo tribes. We call our selves 'horte oromo and horte kush' it is amaizing for me that Abraham is from kush. Ever thing u said about the 1st sone is exercised here in oromo tribe. Amaizing i got the answer about my tribal religion

Alice Linsley said...

Abraham's ruler-priest ancestors were Proto-Saharan Nilotes. These peoples ranged far and wide and certainly were in the Horn of Africa where the Oromo reside.

Musica Para El Alma said...

Love your writings.
Would like some insight into the assumption of Prof. Robertson Smith, that the Horites were though of by the Hebrews as a people of low stock, when I take it that by your writings they are one of the same stock. Horites, being priestly, I would assume that it would be the other way around. Also that the Horites were the equivalent to the Kharu or Khalu of the Egyptian writings.
Could there be any chance that the Jews when writing the Old Testament inserted themselves as the Hebrews being of the same stock as the Horites?

Thank you for your very informative writings.

Alice Linsley said...


The Horite Hebrew (Ha'biru / O'piru / 'Apiru) were a caste of priests and sages attached to the kingdom-building rulers of the Archaic world (9,000-2,000 BC). As such, they exercised great influence and were regarded as wise. I encourage you to read these articles:

(Indeed, music is good for the soul!)

Josh said...

This is what I have been studying in Genesis chapter 25 for the past three months. Esau became Edom,Horites red stew is mixture red people. To understand red is Rufus or rufous in latin the description of the Horite people. This had nothing to do with food it is an allegory, story ,myth, or symbolic reference. All this information is simple using etymology, older dictionaries, old encyclopedias and thesaurus, when using the bible this can be paralleled with historical documents.

Alice Linsley said...

Rufus, ruber, rouge, rojo, Indo-European languages, and crossover from archaic roots in words like rusu, erudu, urudu, etc. Afro-Asiatic references to red color include edom, odum, adam. These are derived from the color for blood DM, as dam (blood) in Hebrew.

Esau didn't become Edom. Esau is a royal name associated with Edom. There were at least two Edomite rulers named Esau. See this:

Edom is related to Ido and Idu. There are many connections between Japanese and African words. For example, the name Isahi is a variant of Esau and Issa. (Issa is Jesus.) Kishi appears to be a variant of Kish and Kush. Obito, the title for a regional chief in Japan, is related to the Edomite word for ruler, which is Oba. The first ruler of Petra was the called Obodas. These ancient rulers were said to have a reddish skin tone (as was the case with Esau and David). The ancient Greeks called Edom "Idumea" which means "land of red people." The original name of Tokyo was Edo.

Historia said...

Why the term Jew. I have read that it was not introduced till the 1700's A.D..

Thank You

Alice Linsley said...

Gonzalo, See this:

Best wishes,

Jandy (Alice)

Subhashis Das said...

Hello Alice
Thank you for this very brilliant post. I was also reading your interaction with Kelly, which too I found to be very informative and interesting as well.

I am an Individual Researcher working on megaliths and their makers the proto austroloid tribals of India, a country where I reside. There are many proto austroloid tribes in India whose folklores and migration stories I am studying very intensely.

The Santals are the second largest tribe in India and just after them are the Mundas. Strangely these people call themselves Hors. They believe that their original homeland was in Chaldea and Abraham was a Santal.
I strongly feel that there must have been a connection between the present Hors of India and the Biblical Horites.

There are several more significant similarities to support my theory. As several Horite names mentioned in the Old Testament are similar with that of many names of these proto austroloid Hors of our country as Birsa, Lotan, Jibon (Zibeon) Tamar, Ser (Seir) etc.

I have dealt this and many more of these similarities between the Bible and the tribal Hors of India in the second part of one of my books THE UNKNOWN CIVILIZATION OF PREHISTORIC INDIA released in 2014.

Best wishes
Subhashis Das