Saturday, January 15, 2011

Who Were the Horites?


Alice C. Linsley


The Horites were a caste of royal priests who served at the sun temples across the archaic world. They were in the service of the kingdom building "mighty men of old" who controlled the trade routes from the wet Sahara to the Indus River and from Anatolia to ancient Brittany. These shrine and temple attendants kept records, recorded measurements, and collected taxes on cargo that moved along the trade routes and major water systems.

As temple attendants, the Horites were responsible for the fabrication of sacred vessels, stone altars, temples, royal tombs, and artifacts pertaining to the ruler's authority (crooks, flails, crowns, etc.). They often used copper and meteoritic iron. Later they fabricated sacred objects of bronze, an alloy of tin copper and tin. In their world there was no separation of sacred and secular. The king was the Creator's representative of earth, and the royal priest was the link between the king and the people, and between the Creator and the people.

The ancient priests who served at the sun temples were called 'Apiru, Hapiru or Habiru (Hebrew). "Piru" means house and the sun temples were called O-piru. The sun was the emblem of the Creator.  The Habiru interceded for the ruler and the people, and offered blood and grain sacrifices. Job offered sacrifice daily for the sins of his own family. At the end of the book, God tells Job to pray for his kinsmen Eliphaz, Zophar and Bildad. This is reminiscent of Abraham praying for Abimelech and his whole household (Gen. 20:17,18).

Purity of life was an essential trait of the Horite priest. The Horite priests of Heliopolis (biblical On) were known for their meticulous devotion to the Creator and his son, and for their sobriety and purity of life. Plutarch wrote that the “priests of the Sun at Heliopolis never carry wine into their temples, for they regard it as indecent for those who are devoted to the service of any god to indulge in the drinking of wine whilst they are under the immediate inspection of their Lord and King. The priests of the other deities are not so scrupulous in this respect, for they use it, though sparingly.”

The word "Horite" takes many forms: Har, Harwa, Khar, Khori, Hur, Hurrian, Horonaim, Horoni, Horowitz, Horim, and Hori. Hori was the son of Lotan son of Seir whose descendants were the "lords of the Horites in the land of Seir" according to Genesis 36:20-29 and 1 Chronicles 1:38-42. Lot, Lotan, and Nimlot are Egyptian titles. Nimlot C was the High Priest of Amun at Thebes during the latter part of the reign of his father Osorkon II.

The Horite Hebrew kings of Edom are listed in Genesis 36. Here is a diagram of the lines descending from Seir the Horite. Note that there are two men named Esau. Esau, like one of his descendant David, is described has being red. It is likely that he had red hair.



Abraham was a Horite Habiru/Hebrew whose territory extended between Hebron (Sarah's settlement) and Beersheba (Keturah's settlement). This place his entire territory in the land of Edom. The Horites of Edom are associated with a red appearance.




The Horites were devotees of HR (Hor, Hur or Horus) whose mother Hathor conceived by the overshadowing of the sun, the Creator's emblem. Horus is the archetype by which Abraham's descendants would recognize Jesus as the promised Seed of the Woman (Gen. 3:15). Jesus' authentication was His rising from the dead on the third day, in accordance with Horite expectation. As St. Augustine noted, the Egyptians took great care in the burial of their dead and never practiced cremation, as in the religions that seek to escape physical existence. Abraham's ancestors believed in the resurrection of the body and awaited a deified king who would rise from the grave and deliver his people from death.

Hathor's animal totem was a cow. She is shown at the Dendura Temple holding her newborn son in a manger or stable. The stable was constructed by the Horite priest Har-si-Atef. Atef was the crown worn by deified rulers. The Arabic word atef or atif means "kind." The ruler who wore the "atef" crown was to embody kindness and he was to unite the peoples.

Horite belief in a deified son who would embody kindness and unite the peoples found fulfillment in Jesus Christ, a descendant of the Horite ruler-priests, the divine son of the Virgin Mary, daughter of the priest Joachim of the line of Nathan. Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of the promise made to Abraham's Horite ancestors in Eden (Gen. 3:15). This is why Frank Moore Cross cannot avoid the conclusion that the God of Israel is the God of the Horites.

Consider how Horus, the mythical archetype of Christ, describes himself in the Coffin texts (passage 148): I am Horus, the great Falcon upon the ramparts of the house of him of the hidden name. My flight has reached the horizon. I have passed by the gods of Nut. I have gone further than the gods of old. Even the most ancient bird could not equal my very first flight. I have removed my place beyond the powers of Set, the foe of my father Osiris. No other god could do what I have done. I have brought the ways of eternity to the twilight of the morning. I am unique in my flight. My wrath will be turned against the enemy of my father Osiris and I will put him beneath my feet in my name of 'Red Cloak'. (Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt by R.T. Rundle Clark, p. 216)

Here we find the words of Psalm 110:1, a messianic reference: The Lord says to my Lord: "Sit at My right hand until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet."


Horus, son of Ra, was venerated at the Predynastic shrine city of Nekhen.

Horus, whose totem was the falcon, was known by many titles. He was called the "Son of God," "Horus of the Two Crowns," "Horus of the Two Horizons," and he was associated with the three superior planets Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Mars was named "Horus of the Horizon" or "Horus the Red." Jupiter was called "Horus Who Illuminates the Two Lands." Saturn was named "Horus, Bull of the Sky." The three superior planets were always depicted with the falcon-head of Horus (Krupp 1979).


Horus soaring as a falcon above the Sun (Ra's emblem) in their solar boat

Horite religious ideas spread across the ancient Afro-Asiatic Dominion, but originated in the Upper Nile region during the late Holocene.  Abraham's ancestors came from the Nile region which was later called Kush. His father Terah is associated with the Nubian Annu who had a red skin tone. We first meet Abraham in the Ur-Haran region because he is a descendant of Nimrod who built a vast kingdom in Mesopotamia. Nimrod was a son of Kush. Likely he is Sargon the Great. Sar-gon means King of kings or Most High King.

Horite does not designate a race or ethnicity. It designates a caste of rulers and priests. Jews are one group that descended from the Horites. That is why Jews call their ancestors horim. Some Jews and some Arabs have a common Horite ancestry.

The ancient world of the Afro-Asiatics was structured along caste lines. Typical of castes, the Horite lines exclusively intermarried (endogamy). The geneologies of the Bible reveal that intermarriage of the ruler-priests lines continued to the time of Jesus. Jesus is the culmination of the Horim's expectation of the fulfillment of the Edenic Promise. (Gen. 3:15)

It is from the Horite priesthood that the priesthood of Israel developed. Moses' two brothers, Korah and Aaron, were Horite priests before Judaism emerged as a distinct world religion, even before Israel can be identified as a nation. Horite priests served in the temple in Jerusalem on a rotating schedule. I Chronicles 4:4 lists Hur (Hor) as the "father of Bethlehem". The author of Chronicles knew that Bethlehem was originally a Horite settlement in the heart of Horite territory.

The word Horite is related to the Egyptian word for priest harwa. Another word for priest is korah. One of Moses's brothers was Korah. Korah means "shaved head" The Horite priest was to be purified before entering the temple. The purification ritual involved shaving their heads and bodies. According to Numbers 16:17,18, Korah carried the censor to offer incense before God.


Analysis of the kinship pattern of Moses's family reveals that it is identical to the pattern of the other Horite Hebrew ruling clans.

Josephus calls the descendants of Abraham by Keturah "Horites" and quoting another ancient historian, speaks of them as "conquerors of Egypt and founders of the Assyrian Empire." Doubtless this is a reference to Nimrod, the Kushite kingdom builder (Gen. 10:8), who established a vast empire in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Josephus failed to note that the Horite Hebrew already existed before Abraham married Keturah. They are Abraham's Kushite ancestors among whom the Messianic hope found early expression.

Horite men married only Horite women and according to a pattern which was tied to ancient tradition. It is not a coincidence that Joseph married Asenath, the daughter of "the priest of On" (Gen. 41:45). The exclusive intermarriage between Horite lines requires that we take these words quite literally: "For me you shall be a kingdom of priests, a holy nation." (Ex. 19:6)

Special care was taken in the selection of the wives of the firstborn sons, and each ruler-priest had four firstborn sons. The firstborn son of the half-sister wife ascended to the throne of his biological father. The firstborn son of the patrilineal cousin or niece ascended to the throne of this maternal grandfather (as did Nimrod, who ascended to the throne of Nimrod the Elder). Nimrod the Younger was named by his mother after her father. This was done only by the cousin/niece brides, so while Nimrod's father is not known, we know that his mother was the daughter of the Kushite ruler Nimrod the Elder who conquer Nippur in 2340.

The firstborn sons by the ruler's two concubines, and sons by wives who didn't ascend to established thrones, were given gifts and sent away to conquer territories of their own. Sent-away sons include Cain, Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Joseph and Moses. By this means the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Horites drove the Kushite expansion out of Africa.


The Horite Priesthood

We have no evidence that Horite priests performed the Canaanite practices condemned by the Biblical prophets, who were their descendants. Horite priests were concerned about purity, especially when preparing for their time of service in the temple.

Horite priests were asked to pray for people because they were recognized as especially holy people. Abraham was asked to pray for Abimelech's household and Job was asked by God to pray for his friends. So the Horite priest's work involved intercessory prayer. That prayer sometimes involved sacrifice. Righteous Job offered sacrifice on behalf of his whole family.

Horite priests are also recognized as shepherds. They kept sheep for the sacrifice and maintained shrines at water systems where they could sustain their flocks. This is why the Horite leaders met their wives at wells.

The trial of Job, in which Satan acts as the accuser, parallels Zechariah 3:2-6 where Satan accuses the High Priest Yeshua. In Yeshua's trial, God acquits Yeshua and commands that he be clothed in clean garments and crowned with 2 crowns (ataroth).

The correspondence between the Horus Myth and the story of Jesus can be explained in two ways. Either Christians borrowed the Horus myth or Christianity emerges in an organic way from the belief system of Abraham and his Horite people. If we decide that Christians borrowed the Horus myth, we must explain why they should have selected this particular myth. There are other great world myths that could have served as the pattern for the story of Jesus. I know of no other religions that prefigure Jesus Christ, the Son of God, other than the faith of Israel as it emerges out of the faith of Abraham's Horite people.

Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and that He will receive an eternal kingdom from the Father. He is the Son of God, the fulfillment of the Edenic Promise of Genesis 3:15. He is able to conquer death and deliver sinners from the curse of death. This is the core of Christian belief. Surrounding this are attendant beliefs which logically follow. One is that to receive eternal life, we must acknowledge our need for mercy, forgiveness and salvation. Another is that God does this for us out of His boundless love. John wrote, "This is the revelation of God's love for us, that God sent his only Son into the world that we might have life through him." (1 John 4:9)

When Abraham went to the land of Canaan he did not abandon the tradition of his ancestors. He continued the marriage pattern of his Horite people, believing the promise made to them in Eden that the Seed of the Woman would be born of their bloodlines. That is why Abraham married his half-sister (Sarah) and his patrilineal cousin (Keturah), following the pattern of his ruler-priest ancestors. The Horites anticipated the coming of the Son of God to earth and believed that He would be born of their priestly bloodlines. That is why the lines of priests intermarrried exclusively and why unchaste daughters of priests were burned alive (Lev. 21:9). Sexual impurity was not tolerated.

Joseph, Jacob's first-born son by Rachel, married Asenath, the chaste daughter of a priest of Heliopolis (city of the Sun). Heliopolis, which was called Iunu by the Greeks, was a shrine city of Horus. Iunu means place of pillars because the temple of Heliopolis was constructed with many pillars. Heliopolis was one of the most prestigious Horite centers in the ancient world. The pyramids of Giza, Saqqara and Abusir were apparently aligned to the obelisk at Heliopolis.

The oldest known site of Horite Hebrew worship in at Nekhen on the Nile (3500 BC). The votive offerings at Nekhen were ten times larger than the normal mace heads and bowls found elsewhere, suggesting that this was a very prestigious shrine.

Horite priests placed invocations to Horus at the summit of the fortress as the sun rose. In the morning the priests faced the eastern horizon to greet the rising sun, the emblem of Ra and his son Horus. Prayers were offered at dawn and dusk. The Chief Inspector of the Horite priests of Nekhen was Horemkhawef. His tomb has been identified.

Nekhen's sister city was Elkab (Nekheb), on the opposite side of the river. The tomb of Horemkhawef in Nekhen and the tomb of Sobeknakht in Elkab were painted by the same artist. Further, Hormose, the chief priest of Nekhen, was able to request material goods from the temple at Elkab for use at the temple at Nekhen.

One of the more intriguing discoveries at Nekhen was the recovery of an almost complete beard in association with the redheaded man in Burial no. 79. The facial hair of the man in Burial no. 79 had been trimmed with a sharp blade. The presence of long wavy natural red hair and a full beard suggests that this individual may be of the same ethnicity as the red haired rulers known as Ur-David (shown below) buried in a pyramid in the Tarum Valley of China.


Note the solar mark on the face of this archaic ruler.


Related reading: Moses' Horite Family Samuel's Horite Family; The Pattern of Two WivesWho is Jesus?; The Horite Ancestry of Jesus MessiahHorite Deified SonsSent-Away SonsThe Genesis Record of Horite Rule; Petra Reflects Horite Belief; Abraham and Job: Horite Rulers; The Hapiru Were Devotees of Hor; The Enigma of Joseph; Kushite Wives

11 comments:

KC said...

Very informative posts which reveal a great deal of research into this field of study.

DDeden said...

Olah is a common Hungarian surname, I was told it means Burnt Offering in Hebrew.

I suspect Hor(-ite) is the root of Hour, the priests were measurers.

Alice Linsley said...

Horus the divine son of the Creator is certainly very significant for the Horites. They were Nilo-Saharans and in that region this name for God already existed. In 2008 Ethiopians archaeologists discovered a sacrificial altar in Meqaber Ga’ewa, a previously unknown location near the city of Wuqro. The altar bore a royal inscription in Old South Arabian (Dedanite) bearing the name Yeha. Read more here: http://jandyongenesis.blogspot.com/2011/06/biblical-sheba-linked-to-east-african.html

Oromo horte of kush said...

Thanks a lot for this article author. I war confused about the 'kalu' or 'qalu' of oromo people. They practise what you said about sucrifice and ever thing they asked for God will be done. Still exercise in borena Oromo tribes. We call our selves 'horte oromo and horte kush' it is amaizing for me that Abraham is from kush. Ever thing u said about the 1st sone is exercised here in oromo tribe. Amaizing i got the answer about my tribal religion

Alice Linsley said...

Abraham's ruler-priest ancestors were Proto-Saharan Nilotes. These peoples ranged far and wide and certainly were in the Horn of Africa where the Oromo reside.

Josh said...

This is what I have been studying in Genesis chapter 25 for the past three months. Esau became Edom,Horites red stew is mixture red people. To understand red is Rufus or rufous in latin the description of the Horite people. This had nothing to do with food it is an allegory, story ,myth, or symbolic reference. All this information is simple using etymology, older dictionaries, old encyclopedias and thesaurus, when using the bible this can be paralleled with historical documents.

Alice Linsley said...

Rufus, ruber, rouge, rojo, red...in Indo-European languages, and crossover from archaic roots in words like rusu, erudu, urudu, etc. Afro-Asiatic references to red color include edom, odum, adam. These are derived from the color for blood DM, as dam (blood) in Hebrew.

Esau didn't become Edom. Esau is a royal name associated with Edom. There were at least two Edomite rulers named Esau. See this:

http://jandyongenesis.blogspot.com/2010/02/two-named-esau.html

Edom is related to Ido and Idu. There are many connections between Japanese and African words. For example, the name Isahi is a variant of Esau and Issa. (Issa is Jesus.) Kishi appears to be a variant of Kish and Kush. Obito, the title for a regional chief in Japan, is related to the Edomite word for ruler, which is Oba. The first ruler of Petra was the called Obodas. These ancient rulers were said to have a reddish skin tone (as was the case with Esau and David). The ancient Greeks called Edom "Idumea" which means "land of red people." The original name of Tokyo was Edo.

Subhashis Das said...

Hello Alice
Thank you for this very brilliant post. I was also reading your interaction with Kelly, which too I found to be very informative and interesting as well.

I am an Individual Researcher working on megaliths and their makers the proto austroloid tribals of India, a country where I reside. There are many proto austroloid tribes in India whose folklores and migration stories I am studying very intensely.

The Santals are the second largest tribe in India and just after them are the Mundas. Strangely these people call themselves Hors. They believe that their original homeland was in Chaldea and Abraham was a Santal.
I strongly feel that there must have been a connection between the present Hors of India and the Biblical Horites.

There are several more significant similarities to support my theory. As several Horite names mentioned in the Old Testament are similar with that of many names of these proto austroloid Hors of our country as Birsa, Lotan, Jibon (Zibeon) Tamar, Ser (Seir) etc.

I have dealt this and many more of these similarities between the Bible and the tribal Hors of India in the second part of one of my books THE UNKNOWN CIVILIZATION OF PREHISTORIC INDIA released in 2014.

Best wishes
Subhashis Das

Alice Linsley said...

Brilliant connections here! Thank you, Subhashis Das.

I agree that there is a connection between the present Hors of India and the Biblical Horites. These ruler-priests appear to have been a royal caste. They are mentioned in many ancient texts by different names, but all the names share the HR root, which suggests a link to Horus.

Hurs, Houris, Horite, Hurrian, Horim

Alice Linsley said...

At the international Facebook forum The Bible and Anthropology we discuss the Horite Hebrew at greater length. You are welcome to join the group.

https://www.facebook.com/groups/970693143031228/

Alice Linsley said...

I also encourage you to read this 7-part series on The Social Structure of the Horite Hebrew. This is Part 1:

http://jandyongenesis.blogspot.com/2017/10/the-social-structure-of-biblical-hebrew.html