Sunday, July 1, 2012

Petra Reflects Horite Beliefs



Petra reflects the pillared architecture of the Horite shrines of the Nile and Obodas, the first ruler of Petra, took his name from the Edo/Edomite name for ruler which is Oba. Linguist Helene Longpre recognizes that Demotic Egyptian (7th-5th c. B.C.) and Nabatean Aramaic most closely correspond to Meroitic or Old Nubian. (Longpre, "Investigation of the Ancient Meroitic Writing System", Rhode Island College, 1999.) Demotic is the script of the Rosetta stone in the Ptolemaic period (332-30 B.C.).



Red mountains of Edom (BAR photo)



Alice C. Linsley



Petra is the Greek name, and refers to the rocky location of the Nabataean capital in the red sandstone mountains of Edom.

The Greeks called the Edomites the Idumea, meaning red people. Esau of Edom was described as having a red skin tone in Genesis 25:25. This suggests that the Edomites of the Bible may be related to the Edo or Idu of Nigeria and Benin whose rulers dress in red. The title of their rulers is further evidence. The ruler of the Edo is called "Oba" and the first ruler of Petra was the deified Nabataean King Obodas.

Edom was controlled by the Horites, a caste of royal priests who spread from the Nile into Mesopotamia, Babylonia and beyond. Seir the Horite is listed as one of their kings in Genesis 36.




The Nabataean kings, such as Harithath IV, bear the Horus name. King Harithath is called King Aretas in II Corinthians 11:32. Coins have been found bearing the image of Aretas, and inscriptions have been found in the Nabataean town of Avdat with his name and the names of other Nabataean rulers. He was called "King of the Nabatu, who loves his people" (Philopatris), and it was during his reign that the greatest of Petra's tombs were created.

The connection to the kings of Egypt is evident in the name of Petra's central temple: Qasr al-Bint al-Faroun which means "The Fortress of the Daughter of Pharaoh." Its walls rise to over 75 feet. At its height of glory, Petra rivaled the grandeur of Herod's Jerusalem.

The word Nabataean is likely related to Naba or Nabu, the guardian of scribes and prophets. This is the origin of the Hebrew word nabi, meaning prophet. The earliest scribes were Horite priests. The cult of Nabu was introduced into Mesopotamia and Babylon by the Kushites. Kushite kings sometimes bore the name Nabu, as with Nabu-shum-libur, an early Kushite king in Babylon and Nabu-aplu-iddina.

The Horites traced blood line through the mother while social status was based on the father's rank and occupation. Married women could hold and bequeath property and rule over their clans. Anah is listed as a "chief" in Genesis 36. Her name is also spelled Anat and Anath. Joseph married the daughter of a Horite priest. Her name was Asenath, a variant of Anath.



A Monumental Complex

Petra is a 400-acre complex cut from the rock well before the time of Jesus. It reveals sophisticated water management. There were aqueducts, piping systems and channels that directed water to the city center, to the temple, and to the homes and gardens of prominent citizens. Retention dams prevented flooding.
The Treasury at Petra
Note the 3-portal design. Jordan has done restoration at this and other Petra edifices. 


North-facing Petra temple
The Petra temple exhibits the typical Egyptian Divine Triad of Supreme God (Al / El), the Divine Son (Horus, associated with Jupiter), and the Mother Goddess (Hathor / Mari). Generally, the architecture reflects the Horite 3-part structure. Excavations at the foot of the Treasury reveal that there were 3 stories, not just the two shown in photographs.


Nabataeans Related to Other Biblical Peoples


The Nabataeans were Arabs of the Negev whose dominion once extended as far as Damascus in Syria. They were involved in the lucrative South Arabian spice, incense and perfume trade and apparently were related to the royal House of Sheba.

The rulers of Sheba were descendants of Raamah and their territory extended from the southwestern part of Arabia northward to Beersheba (the well of Sheba). Sheba and Dedan were brothers (Gen.10:7) who ruled separate territories. The qiblahs in the oldest mosques in Cairo and in Baghdad point to Dedan, about 500 miles north-northwest of Mecca.



Dedanite Y

The largest collection of ancient Arabic texts have been found at the North Arabian oases of Tema and Dedan in the Hijaz. Tema is known by Arabs as Taima and lies about 70 miles north-east of Dedan. Tema, Dedan and Dumah were caravan stops along the trade route from Sheba to Babylon.



The Horites and Horses


Sheba is credited with early domestication, breeding and export of Arabian horses. Likely the word "horse" is derived from Horus or Horite. The word horse appears as hors in Old English texts before the 12th century. Onager horses, called gur or khur, were bred by Kushites along the Tigris before 3000 BC. Rock and cave images of horses in the Sahara predate the 1670 BC Hyksos invasion of Egypt, so the Hyksos cannot be credited with introducing horses to Egypt.

The Nabataean cavalry was camel mounted with two archers, one facing forward and one facing either front or back. The warriors wore ribbons in their long wavy hair. The camel was well suited to the desert environment in which they fought, but with their expansion into Syria, the Nabataeans adopted horses for war. They preferred fast lighter horses that could, in the words of Diodorus "… flee into the desert, using this as a stronghold."


Two men per camel
The Nabataean warriors look like the Red Nubian warriors
who also had long wavy hair and wore feathers.


Petra's Last Days


Petra sustained significant damage during an earthquake in May AD 363. The city sits near the boundary of the Arabian plate and has suffered from numerous quakes. The quake of 363 was especially devastating. It was reported that half the city was destroyed and the water system was disrupted. Archaeologists confirm damage to the main theater, the principal temple of Qasr al-Bint al-Faroun, and the Colonnaded Street.

Petra was in economic decline before the earthquake of AD 363 due to changes in trade. The flourishing land trade from East Africa and South Arabia to the Mediterranean and India had declined by the 2nd century A.D.



Related reading:
Architecture Links Horites and Petra; The Genesis Record of Horite Rule; Who Were the Horites?; Abraham's Camels; 7000 BC Horse Burial Linked to Sheba; The Afro-Arabian Dedanites; The Arabian Horse and the Nabataeans; Who Was Oholibamah?; Some Jews and Some Arabs Have Common Horite Ancestry


10 comments:

Greg Hamm said...

I enjoyed this very much, as do all your post. Check every day to see if you have posted anything new.

Alice Linsley said...

Thank you, Greg. I see you are a fellow Kentuckian. Keep blogging the Word.

Any relation to Ken Hamm of Creation Museum and Answers in Genesis fame?

Daniel Kalinowski said...

Could you provide me with some valuable articles/websites regarding the Horite/Israel/Egypt topic?

Greg Hamm said...

No, I'm not related to Ken Ham. I had never heard of the Creation Museum until last year. My brother who pastors Crossroad Assembly of God church in San Angelo Tx. came home for a visit and wanted to go see the museum. As it turns out Ken Ham was there that day giving a lecture. But I missed it because I was wrapped up reading one of the displays. My brother didn't know where I was, so he went on to the lecture. He said it was very good. I'm looking forward to the Ark Museum that will open in 2014. I don't know if ken Ham is right or not, but I do know that a person can learn a lot at the museum.

Alice Linsley said...

Daniel,

I recommend using the INDEX at Just Genesis. You will find more information than you probably want or can process. :)

The related readings at the end of each article take you deeper into the subject matter and show how the Horite ruler-priest caste and the Horim (ancestors) of Israel have a pre-Abrahamic Nilotic context.

If you can't find what you are seeking, let me know and I will refer you to specific materials.

As far as I know, only Just Genesis addresses this connection as this has been the focus of my 30+ year research.

Daniel Kalinowski said...

So you will probably be suprised by what I've just found a minute ago. I've just skimmed this pdf, but on the hindsight John Campbell (1840-1904) came to suprasingly similiar conclusions.
Have you ever seen it?
http://ia600300.us.archive.org/14/items/cihm_00377/cihm_00377.pdf

Alice Linsley said...

Greg,

I apologize. I forgot that Ken spells his last name with one M.

I visited the Creation Museum a few years ago. It was difficult for me as an Old Earth Creationist and an Anthropologist. I managed to write a positive review which is here:
http://jandyongenesis.blogspot.com/2010/05/creation-museum.html

Best wishes to you!

Alice Linsley said...

Daniel,

I'm not surprised at all. When a researcher keeps an open mind and lets the data speak for itself, the dots connect. Sometimes it takes years.

Scholars have been dancing around this for centuries.

Thanks for the link.

Laiakini Waqanisau said...

Dear Alice,

Thanks for this article. Not sure if you have heard of a place called Bozrah in Hebrew and indicated in the Book of Revelation in the New Testament. Could Petra also be Bozrah?

Alice Linsley said...

Laiakini,

Boz-ra was the ancient capital city of Edom. In the book of Revelation it may simply represent Edom or Horite territory. Often the capital of a nation represents the whole nation or people. The language in Revelation reflects Horite expectation of the Son of God who would be born of the Woman in Genesis 3:15. The woman is the Virgin Mary, a descendant of the Horite rulers of Edom. The Horites knew of her, as she is prefigured in Hathor-Meri, who conceived when the Sun overshadowed her and she gave birth to Horus, the Son of Ra. Thus Boz-Ra, the sheepfold of Ra.