Monday, May 30, 2011

Busting Myths About Abraham

Alice C. Linsley

Myth 1: Abraham was a Jew

According to the rabbis, Jewish identity depends on 2 conditions: whether one’s mother is Jewish or whether one has properly converted to Judaism. By this definition Abraham was not a Jew. He did not convert to Judaism since this religion emerged after Abraham’s time, and Abraham’s mother was not Jewish.

Abraham's mother is not mentioned in the Bible, but when we explore her identity we find the suggestion that she was a high-ranking woman whose father was called Karnevo, a name associated with the Horus temple at Karnak. In the Karnak birth chapel we find a series of scenes depicting the annunciation, miraculous conception, and birth of Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BC) as the embodiment of Horus. The virgin queen is embraced by Hat-Hor, the mother of Horus. (Hat-Hor is later called Isis.) There is a scene in which Amun, the supreme God, holds an ankh (Egyptian cross and symbol of life) to the queen's nostril. In the final scene the queen is sitting on a couch surrounded by five figures on the left and four on the right, and one in a group of three royal persons is holding the infant king.

Amenhotep III
His kingdom extended from Nubia to Syria
Some have noted the correspondence between Horus and Jesus and argue that Christianity is a conspiracy based on the Horus myth. However, Amenhotep III died and did not rise from the grave. Further, the burden of proof is on those who believe that the Christians selected the Horus myth to explain Jesus Christ. They must explain why this particular myth was chosen.

The true reason is that Abraham and his people were Horites, a caste of ruler-priests who were devotees of Horus. Horus is the archetype by which Abraham’s descendants would recognize Jesus as the Messiah and the fulfillment of the Edenic Promise of Genesis 3:15. Here God promised to Abraham's ancestors that a woman of their own bloodline would bring forth the Seed who would crush the serpent's head and restore Paradise. The expectation of a Righteous Ruler who would overcome death and lead his people to immortality is much older than Judaism. This is evident in multiple anthropological studies of archaic rulers, ascendancy and the foreshadowing of Christ.

Christianity emerges naturally out of the faith of Abraham.  Messianic expectation wasn't invented by the Jews, neither did Jesus found Christianity.  He is the fulfillment of both. This is why Jesus and his Apostles called the religious leaders in Jerusalem hypocrites. They claimed a special status as sons of Abraham, but rejected the faith of Abraham.

Abraham’s Ethnicity

In Genesis we first meet Abraham living in the Tigris-Euphrates valley where his father Terah controlled a great portion of the commerce on the Tigris. Terah was as a ruler-priest with 2 wives living in separate households; one in Ur and the other in Haran. This was the practice of the Horite ruler-priests and explains why Abraham had 2 wives, as did Jacob.

Abraham’s people migrated to Mesopotsamia from the Nile region. Terah and Abraham were descendants of the great kingdom builder Nimrod who established a vast territory in Mesopotamia. According to Genesis 10:8, Nimrod was one of Kush’s sons, so Terah and Abraham are of Kushite ancestry.

This helps to identify when Abraham lived, since information is available about the Kushite migration into the Levant and Mesopotamia.To determine the approximate period when Abraham lived we must correlate the biblical information with findings in archaeology, anthropology, climate studies and migration studies.

The research of Dr. Catherine Acholonu of Nigeria bears on the question of when Abraham lived. Her work shows that a great Kushite ruler established a territory with Akkad as one of its center before the rise of Assyria. In Nigerian lore he was known as Sharru-Kin, which is interpreted “the righteous King.” In the eastern part of the Afro-Asiatic Dominion the word kin is khan. Sharru is related to the word sarki and in Egypt, the sarki were priests. Sarki can also mean one who takes life, as in sacrifice or hunting. The Hausa word for hunter is maharba. The Hebrew for hunter is nah shirkan (Targum).  Note the similarity to the Hausa word sarkin maharba, meaning lead hunter.

There is a large body of linguistic data to indicate that the Hebrew language emerged from the older Kushitic languages of Sudan, Egypt, Kenya, Tanzania and the Horn of Africa.

The Hebrew word for soul is nefesh and is related to the Rendille words nefsi/nefso, to the Somali naf [soul] or neef [breath], and to the Oromo nef.  These languages of the Horn of Africa and Kenya are Kushitic. The connection of Hebrew, Arabic and Aramaic to the Kushitic languages has been well established.

Sarki means ruler among the people of Kano (biblical Kain), who today are called Kanuri. They reside in west central Africa in the region of Orisha, which is where Noah lived according to African local legends. Sarki also live in the Orissa Province of India. Here we have a linguistic connection between India and Nigeria, further evidence that the Horite ruler-priests migrated north and east from the Nile valley. They went even beyond India into Nepal because Sarki live as ‘Haruwa’ in the Tarai region of Nepal. The word Haruwa is equivalent to the ancient Egyptian word ‘Harwa”, meaning priest. Horites spread also in Cambodia where they established a shrine at what is today Angkor Wat, which is actually Ankh Hor Wat, meaning shrine of the eternal Horus.

So there is considerable evidence for the migration of the great Kushite ruler to Mesopotamia and that he was what Genesis 10:9 calls a "mighty hunter before the Lord."
Another word for ruler is gon, although is may mean royal vassal. If so, both the name Sargon and the name Sharru-Kin mean ruler-priest. Assuming that Nimrod is Sargon I who died around 2215 BC, we can estimate the approximate dates of Abraham’s life. He would have lived between 2275-2205 B.C.

Using age 70 as the approximate lifespan for these rulers, and calculating the birth of the listed heir at about age 20, (though the age would be closer 40 for the heir of the cousin wife), we can estimate the following dates:

Noah  B.C. 2495-2425
Shem  B.C. 2475(55)-2405                          Ham B.C. 2325-2255
Arphachad  B.C. 2455-2385                         Kush B.C. 2305-2235
Selah  B.C. 2435-2365                                 Nimrod B.C. 2285-2215
Eber  B.C. 2415-2345
Peleg  B.C. 2395-2325
Reu  B.C. 2375-2305
Serug  B.C. 2355-2285
Na-Hor  B.C. 2335-2265
Terah  B.C. 2315-2245
Abraham  B.C. 2275-2205
Joktan  B.C. 2255-2185
Sheba  B.C. 2235-2165

Abraham and his Horite ancestors lived well before the time of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BC)  Belief in Horus as the “son of God” who would be born by a virgin queen preceded Amenthotep's time. Horus was worshipped at the pre-dynastic shrine city of Nekhen (Heirakonpolis) in Sudan. Nekhen was already established in 4000 BC. By 3500 BC, it was a city of many neighborhoods, private homes and even palatial residences. There were commerical districts hosting busy industries, and Nekhen ran over 3 miles along the Nile.

Related reading: Jacob Leaves Beersheba; Hierakonpolis; Challenge to Shaye Cohen's Portrayal of Abraham; The Christ in Nilotic Mythology; The Saharan Origins of the Pharaohs


Chris Larimer said...

Genetics again prove your work! See the information at the ICR.

Alice C. Linsley said...

Thanks, Fr. Chris. This confirms the late Kushite migration out of Africa. You will note that Africans intermarried with peoples of the Levant. These Africans were not of the priest caste.

There are numerous "African" genetic strands, but presumably this article is referencing the Horite strand. This is called the Kohan or "priest marker" and has been known for a long time. It is identifiable and distinctive because Horite priests married daughters of priests only. The haplogue studies based on mitochondrial samples reflect the women since we receive the mtDNA from our mothers. So, yes, DNA studies confirm that the Horite ancestors of the priests of ancient Israel did marry exclusively within the priestly divisions/lines, which is what analysis of the Biblical genealogy material shows. This is the blood ancestry of Jesus Christ our Lord.

Anonymous said...

Please always differentiate the difference between the years that Joktan the Elder lived being the son of Eber, and when Jokshan the younger lived being the son of Keturah (daughter of Joktan the Elder)and Abraham.

Alice C. Linsley said...

Do you believe that the names Jokshan and Joktan are linguistically unrelated?

Kepha said...

Alice, Angkor Wat has nothing to do with Hor. Angkor is a Khmer twisting of the Sanskrit Nagar, or city, and Wat means a temple. In Thai (one of my languages), the cognate is Nakhon, found in the names of many Thai cities (for example, Nakhon Rachisima, in NE Thailand, is called by the Khmer-speaking peasants who live not too far away Angkor Rach, or "royal town"). Further, Angkor was was built way too late for any memory of Nimrod or Hor to be embodied in it, being built around 1100 A.D. The Khmer, after all, left a history, and they are by no means extinct, being the people of Cambodia, whose culture influences to this day the internal life and speech of the Thai royal family. I think your try to prove a little too much for the actual evidence.

Kind regards from Kepha, a SE Asia hand.

Alice C. Linsley said...

Welcome, Kepha. Your comments are always welcome here and I hope that you will return often to challenge me.

Indeed there is considerable evidence that Angkor Wat is a symbolic representation of Mount Meru in East Africa. In Hindu and Buddhist mythology (which have as Kushite beliefs) the mound that emerged from the primordial seas at the beginning of time is called Mount Meru. It emerges from the center of the Cosmic Ocean, and the Sun and seven visible planets circle the mountain. Mount Meru in Hinduism is a mythological mountain. However, the source of this idea is found in East Africa at Mt. Meru. In Egyptian it is spelled Meri, which is Mary in English. Meri is sometimes spelled Meni, with the n taking the place of the r, as in the Southeastern Asian languages (like Siamese), which call Mary "Mania."

The Virgin Mary, whose womb swelled with the Son of God, is sometimes portrayed in icons as the mountain of God. The Prophet Daniel saw a mountain, from which a stone was cut by the hand of God (Dan. 2:34, 45). This is the stone which the builders rejected and which has become a stumbling block, even Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

Angkor Wat also draws on Nilotic religious symbolism. It faces west toward the Nile and, as with the Egyptian royal tombs, corresponds in architectural form to the number 72. The number 72 represents the numerical sequence linked to the earth’s axial precession, which causes the apparent alteration in the position of the constellations one degree every 72 years. It has been noted also that Angkor Wat is located 72 degrees of longitude east of the Pyramids of Giza. The name Angkor correlates with the ancient Egyptian Anhk-Hor, meaning "May Horus Live." This was originally a Horite shrine.

African, specifically Kushite, religion, preceeded Hinduism. It spread from Africa to Pakistan, India, Nepal and Cambodia. The Sudra of India are originally from the Nile region. "Sudra" means Sudanese.

Dravidian Sudra mined gold in the mountains of southern Africa 2000 years ago. These same people populated southern India. The oldest Dravidian traditions speak of ancient prehistoric kingdoms in southern India, extending further south into land that is now under the seas. There was once a land bridge between India and the Arabian Peninsula. Many ancient Sudran temples and monuments are under the sea now.

The Sudra didn’t establish cities in the north of India (the Aryan part) but they traveled far into Central Asia. In Nepal their priests are called "Harwa", the ancient Egyptian word for priest. These ruler-priests (also called "Sarki") are responsible for the diffusion of the Afro-Asiatic religious life that took root around the large water systems from west central Africa to the Indus River Valley.

Anonymous said...

Kanuri are the people of Borno, Damergu and Chad not Kano. Kano people are predominantly Hausa and Fulani. Kano has always been a Hausa state. Hausa ppl speak a Babylonian language called hausa which is labeled as Chadic (Chaldean).

Alice C. Linsley said...

Bor-No is the Land of Noah. Noah is a descendant of Kain and Seth. The 7 city-states of the Hausa are said to be founded by Bayajidda who came there from the Nile region. He came there long after the time of Noah.

He likely came to Nigeria from Arabia. The name resembles the Arabic name 'Ub ay diyya. Al-'Ubaydiyya (Arabic: العبيدية‎) was an Arab village before it was depopulated on March 3, 1948. It was located in Galilee about 6 miles south of Tiberias, close to the Jordan River. The Canaanites referred to al-'Ubaydiyya as Bayt Shamash which means "House of God." Shamash was another name for the Creator Re, whose emblem was the Sun. He was worshiped by different names across the vast Afro-Asiatic Dominion.

In Bor-No Bayajida married the daughter of a local chief, but later fled after having a dispute with the ruler. This fits the biblical person of Cain (Kano) who married a daughter of the chief Nok. He is said to have fled after killing his brother.

The Hausa claim that Bayajida, came from the east in an effort to escape his father. It is possible that his father was a ruler in Egypt or ancient Nubia. The story goes on to say that Bayajida eventually came to Gaya where he employed blacksmiths to fashion a knife for him. This fits the picture as the region of Gaya, Nok and Kano is famous for blacksmith clans, such as the Inadan. Gaya is said to be the origin of a man named Kano who first settled in the present Kano State in search of ironstone.

Sue Whitson said...

I'm confused. Are you saying that Abraham is a decedent of Ham, not Shem?