Friday, September 23, 2011

Chronology of the Genesis Rulers

Alice C. Linsley

The following are approximate dates which have been calculated using the Genesis king lists

B.C. 2490-2415 – Noah, lived when the Sahara experienced a wet period (Karl W. Butzer 1966)

B.C. 2438-2363 – Ham, son of Noah by his cousin-wife

B.C. 2417-2342 – Kush/Cush, son of Ham and the father of Nimrod and Ramah

B.C. 2290-2215 - Nimrod , known in history as “Sargon the Great”

B.C. 2238-2163 - Arpacshad, son by Asshur's daughter, probably his cousin-wife. ("Shad" means happy.)

B.C. 2217-2042 - Salah, likely Arpacshad's son by his sister-wife.

B.C. 2196-2121 - Eber, likely Salah's son by his sister-wife.      

B.C. 2175-2100 - Peleg, likely Eber's son by his sister-wife. Peleg's brother was Joktan the Elder.

B.C. 2154-2079 - Reu , likely the head of Leah's line, who named her first-born son Reu-ben.

B.C. 2133-2058 - Serug, likely Reu's firstborn by his sister-wife.

B.C. 2112-2037 - Nahor, likely Serug's firstborn by his sister-wife.

B.C. 2091-2016 - Terah, likely Nahor's firstborn by his sister-wife.

B.C. 2039-1964 - Abraham, Terah's son by his cousin-wife.

B.C. 1987-1912 - Joktan, Abraham's firstborn son by his cousin bride, Keturah.

Standard Chronology of Egypt and Sudroid Asia

3200 - 3050 BC: Naqada III; the last century of the Predynastic period of Egypt. Time of transition during which the Upper and Lower Nile regions became culturally and politically unified. This is one of the places in Africa where flint knives have been found for ceremonial use in sacrifice and probably circumcision.

Menes is credited with first uniting the Upper and Lower Nile peoples into one Kingdom. Numerous later Egyptian writings claim Narmer as the conqueror of all the societies along the length of the Nile River. He wore the double crown to show that he was sovereign over both. The serekh surrounding Narmer’s name is surmounted by Horus’s totem, the falcon. Horus was regarded as a deity and called “son of God” at Nekhen in Sudan as early as 4000 B.C. During the 1897/1898 field season, British archaeologist J. E. Quibell found what is called the “Narmer Palette” at Nekhen (Hierakonpolis), The Narmer Palette illustrates Narmer’s unification of the Nilotic peoples.

2900 BC – 2334 BC: Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period.

2775 BC – 2650 BC: Second Dynasty wars in Egypt.

2700 BC: Early Dynastic (Archaic) period ended in Ancient Egypt (according to French Egyptologist Nicolas Grimol). This period includes 1st -2nd Dynasties.

c. 2700 BC: Old Kingdom started in Ancient Egypt. 3rd–6th Dynasties.

c. 2686 BC: Early Dynastic (Archaic) period ends in Ancient Egypt (other date is 2700 BC).

c. 2686 BC: Old Kingdom starts in Ancient Egypt (other date is 2700 BC).

 2686 BC: Egypt: End of Second Dynasty, start of Third Dynasty. Pharaoh Khasekhemwy died. Pharaoh Sanakhte started to reign.

c. 2685 BC: Bull lyre, from the tomb of Queen Puabi, Ur (modern Muqaiyir, Iraq) was made. It is now in University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

c. 2681 BC – c. 2662 BC: Reign of Djoser, Pharaoh of Egypt, Third Dynasty.

2668 BC: Pharaoh Sanakhte died.

c. 2667 BC: Pharaoh Djoser started to rule (other date is 2681 BC).

2660 BC: Archaic period ended in Ancient Egypt.

c. 2660 BC: Old Kingdom in Ancient Egypt started (Another date is 2715 BC).

c. 2648 BC: Pharaoh Djoser died (another date is 2662 BC).

2630 BC – 2611 BC: Imhotep, Vizier of Egypt, constructed the Pyramid of Djoser

2613 BC: End of 3rd Dynasty, start of 4th Dynasty. Pharaoh Huni died. Pharaoh Sneferu started to reign.

c. 2613 BC – 2494 BC: 4th Dynasty; The Great Sphinx at Giza was built

c. 2601 BC – c. 2515 BC: 4th Dynasty; Great Pyramids at Giza built for Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu.

c. 2601 BC: Khufu started to rule in Ancient Egypt.

2600 BC: The cities of Harappa (Har-appa mean “Hor is father”) and Mohenjo-daro, along with 4 other major shrine cities, became centers of a vast Afro-Asiatic civilization that included over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole of Pakistan, much of India, and parts of Afghanistan and Iran, covering a region of around one million square miles.

2600 BC: End of the Early Dynastic II Period and the beginning of the Early Dynastic IIIa Period in Mesopotamia.

Alignment of Egypt Chronology with Genesis (Following Breasted* with some modification based on most current evidence)

First Intermediate Period 
2475-2445 BC: 5th - 6th Dynasties       Noah, Shem, Ham and Japheth

2445–2160 BC: 7th - 10th Dynasties      Arpachshad, Salah, Eber and Peleg and Joktan the Elder

Middle Kingdom 
2160-2000 BC: 11th Dynasty                Nahor, Terah and Abraham
Abraham likely had an audience with Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II, a powerful ruler of the 11th Dynasty who reigned for 51 years.
2000-1788 BC: 12th Dynasty                Jacob, Esau, Joseph

*James Henry Breasted (1865 – 1935) was an American archaeologist and historian. After completing his PhD at the University of Berlin in 1894, he joined the faculty of the University of Chicago. In 1901 he became director of the Haskell Oriental Museum at the University of Chicago, where he continued to concentrate on Egypt. In 1919 he became the founder of the Oriental Institute at the University, designed to be a lab for research into the rise of civilization in the Near East. In 1905 Breasted was promoted to professor in the first chair in Egyptology and Oriental History in the United States.

Related reading: Thoughts on Calculating the Dates of the Patriarchs

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