This is an apology for anything I have published at Just Genesis that is misleading, improperly presented, or of a juvenile nature. I beg that people not use the former immature articles to harshly judge the later work. I acknowledge and claim the earlier work, and hope that none will attempt to triumph over the truth of the later findings by bashing the earlier: "a practice very contrary to those rules of candour and fair-dealing, and a strong instance of those polemical artifices, which a bigotted zeal thinks itself authorized to employ." (From an Advertisement for Hume's An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding)
Alice C. Linsley
It has been close to 35 years since I first began to research the book of Genesis, beginning with analysis of the kinship pattern of Abraham's ancestors. I realize that this is not a typical hobby, especially for women. I no longer try to explain my obsession. I've come to accept that there is a reason for it and I pray that my research might be helpful.
There is a good deal of misundertanding about what I write. An anthropological approach to the Bible often renders an unfamiliar picture and people are suspicious of the unfamiliar. Some accuse me of fabricating lies. Today I received two hateful missives in which I was threatened for perpetuating "the lie" that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. I considered allowing the comments to appear, but this blog is intended to edify and such anti-Christ venom is not edifying.
If I have offended, I ask your forgiveness. Better not to read what I write than to become disturbed in your spirit or shaken in your faith. Better to do as C.S. Lewis advises, "Remember this is only one more picture. Do not mistake it for the real thing itself; and if it does not help you, drop it." (last line of "The Perfect Penitent")
I've never earned a cent for this on-going research so it is amusing that some claim that I am writing for financial gain. I've sought venues where I might share what I've learned, but Asbury Seminary, Asbury University, The Lexington Theological Seminary, Georgetown College, Midway College and others have remained closed doors.
My work on Genesis may even cost me the job I have.
On Friday the principal of the school where I teach asked me to respond to allegations made by a parent that I don't measure up to the school's statement of faith. I'm not sure what this parent meant, but I suspect she was refering to this: "We acknowledge absolute truth, as revealed in God's Word, and its relevance to our lives. Our teachers and staff are committed to helping students discover the truth, to think critically in the classroom and in real life." I am committed to the absolute truth revealed in God's Word.
That said, I am not committed to inaccurate interpretations of the Bible. I am not committed to dogmatic ideologies that don't align with the whole of the Bible. I am against shoving apparent discrepancies under the carpet when they may exist for the very purpose of provoking us to investigate a mystery. I am not committed to the preservation of interpretations that have been passed along in commentaries on Genesis, many of which were taken uncritically from rabbis who rejected Jesus as the Son of God.
The themes and patterns found throughout the Bible first appear in Genesis. The foundational nature of the book of Genesis makes it essential that this material be understood in its proper cultural context. Cultural Anthropology assists in this endeavor, particularly in the application of kinship analysis and the identification of anthropologically significant data in the text.
I am more of a literalist than people realize because I believe that Genesis is about real people who really lived. Genesis, indeed the whole Bible, is about a real promise that God made to Abraham's ancestors concerning the Son of God who would come into the world to save repentant sinners. He is called the "Seed" in Genesis 3:15 and Jesus identified Himself as that Seed when he told his disciples that He was going to Jerusalem to die. He said, "unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit." (John 12:24)
I want to share this research in spite of criticisms from anthropologists who are offended that I use Biblical data. My working hypothesis has been that the data in Genesis 4-11 is reliable and truthful and that it can be used to investigate human origins. The remarkable outcomes of that working hypothesis are shown in this article Solving the Ainu Mystery.
If this research is of God, it will bear fruit one day. I am confident of that. If it isn't of God, there is nothing to fear. It will be forgotten.
Related reading: Reactions to my Research; Alice C. Linsley's Research on Genesis: Genesis in Anthropological Perspective; INDEX of Topics at Just Genesis
Ms. Linsley, you present pioneering work in your “sleuthing of pre-Abrahamic origins.” It takes some adjustment as your research moves way beyond what I’ve heard over many years in listening to "explanations" regarding origins. Thank you so much for many illuminating discussions which add to the corpus of revealing the mighty hand of the Almighty. Respectfully, Brent
Keep up the good work, trust in God, and He will not let your foot slip.
Truth and knowledge will ultimately overcome falsehood and ignorance every time.
With respect, admiration, and love,
Thanks, Brent and Anastasia. I appreciate your support and encouragement.
I have always admired your courage in standing up for your beliefs, and I know God watches over you. He will take care of you and care for you.
Thank you for the good example you have set by following your callings, perhaps without even being aware of it. Our sermon on Sunday was about following our "personal commandment". Examples given included Ananias going to Saul/Paul to pray and to teach him about Jesus. We are all of us saved in part because of Ananias' courage.
God bless you and keep you and give you joy and confidence! :-)
I think this is important research that you are doing. It does not contradict Orthodox teaching, and the way you present it shows it compliments the ancient knowledge. It's amazing how much information we can access today. When you find out how so many tribes all over the world and in so many different ages were worshiping God at the times they were found by Christian missionaries, and how it was documented that so many were waiting for someone to show them the true way you realize God's imprint has been on all men. Your research pulls this together to show how this expectation was documented in Genesis. There's a huge story here - the biggest story there is. When will your book be published? Gene B.
There have been times that I do not know what to do with your hypotheses or with your conclusions; I'm not sure how to assimilate them and how to read the remainder of scripture through those lenses. I have taken comfort as you frequently return to the crux of the issue for me: Jesus the Christ. As long as that is in place, then everything else will eventually find it's rightful slot and meaning.
I concur with Anonymous, Anastasia Theododridis and Anonymous again. I suspect your work will not pass away, but is the surface of a deep well.
Your work has demonstrated that experts in other academic fields are not the only ones who can discover Biblical artifacts; ancient manuscripts and archeology are not the only or richest sources of Biblical understanding. You have convincingly revealed that countless academics have stopped short, overlooked, or been intimidated by the well-documented evidence you present.
The institution with which you are affiliated should be supportive of you, and grateful to have someone who will become a Biblical scholar of reknown (those perhaps in God's time) on their faculty.
Keep up the great work. People who can see the evidence that others overlook are few and far between.
Do not be dismayed but rejoice!
Such wonderful words of encouragement! Thank you, Tina, Margaret, Jospeh, Yemitom and Lon.
Tina, I had never thought of how the courage of Ananias changed the course of events. Saul became Paul on the Street called Straight in Damascus. That is where Ananias prayed for him to receive his sight.
My students and I were speaking of this last week. They are memorizing Romans 12:18 in Spanish. Here Paul exhorts the Christians in Rome to live in peace with everyone, in as much as it depends on them and to the degree that it is possible. We discussed how sometimes trouble will come our way even when we try to live in peace with everyone.
Joseph, I understand what you are saying. Part of the problem is that I haven't made connections to the New Testament as often as I should. I will try to correct that in the future.
In Genesis we find God setting the stage for the incarnation of His Son, Jesus Christ. Most people say the curtain opens with the calling of Abraham in Genesis 12, but that is to overlook the evidence that Abraham's ancestors were already hopeful of the coming of the Seed of the Woman (Gen. 3:15). Genesis is profoundly Christological.
Anyway, thanks for hanging in there.
I haven't read "Peace Child" - it seems worth a read. I was moved by Father Michael's "Orthodox Alaska" which describes how one tribe was awaiting the missionaries, the stories of the expected coming of them being passed down through the generations. Another amazing book is "Testament of Memory" by Michael Cheralkov. He grew up in a pagan tribe in Siberia and worked on a written language to communicate with his people. The book is his testament, of how he came to be a priest, describing his experiences interacting with the local pagan tribes. You can get this book from Holy Trinity Publications (Jordanville). It just came out and had me mesmerized.
If we truly believe that God is real, created us, and loves us we have to see the cosmic aspect of Christ taking on human flesh as a complete and universal event, touching all creation. With this is mind it is almost self understood that people would await this and understand this, for it is the simple truth of our existence. Before there was mass media and mass propaganda (that's all there is now) clouding the hearts of modern men, there was what was passed down. For all the peoples that rejected Christ, there were many that simply understood and accepted conversion. Reading such a testament from Michael Cheralkov puts this in perspective - he demonstrates how this was done.
My point was only that the expectation documented in the bible existed in many other tribes and even until today many are waiting to hear the good news!
I still think you should self publish, make a website, sell it as an e-book or make some copies and sell the printed versions. There will be too much resistance in the establishment perhaps until enough people read it - perhaps a publisher will be interested afterwards! Anyway, just a thought.
I love your work and as an Orthodox Christian it adds to my understanding of our existence.
Today God used you to set me on the right path in searching for the truth of Jesus and his ancestors. I had already studied migration patterns and dna info on the R1a and R1b haplo-groups.
What you report confirms what I have already found and corrected a few errors of perception.
I knew they were followers of Horus, but still had not put together the larger picture of the Horite's and Kushite's
The Savior Gods born in mangers from virgin mothers are much more widespread than most people realize. That is because these Horite's spread their message far and wide.
Their descendants became the Therapeute of Egypt and the Essene's and Nazarene's of Canaan, among others.
It is no slight on Christianity in the least to acknowledge that this motif is widespread. As I look at it, why would God only send one Savior at one time for the world?
Did he not care about the people who lived three thousand years ago as he did the people two thousand years ago at the time of Jesus?
You are doing God's work-so don't let any naysayers get you down. Just think of the prophets of the Old Testament any time you feel persecuted!
"Why would God only send one Savior at one time for the world?"
Because that is what God promised to do way back in Eden. He said "the Woman" would bring forth "the Seed" who would crush the serpent's head and restore Paradise. He is the king of the Universe and there can only be one King.
Jesus is not one of many avatars or bodhisattvas of God. He is God incarnate, and only God can save the world He made.
"Did he not care about the people who lived three thousand years ago as he did the people two thousand years ago at the time of Jesus?"
The promise of Gen. 3:15 was made to people (Abraham's ancestors) who lived at least 5000 years ago. They lived in expectation of the fulfillment of the promise. Today we have seen the promise fulfilled and await Christ's return and the culmination of history. Just as the Proto-Gospel was widely dispersed before Abraham's time, so all the peoples of the earth will know when Jesus Christ returns.
God bless you. Thank you for your word of encouragement.
Go and never stop in uncovering the truth. Four thousand years of lies is enough. Your quest is also mine. Thank you so much.
I thought the following review you wrote below on Amazon review reply comments quite interesting. I kinda understand but not fully. If Adam and Eve are only Abraham ancestors, what does that mean in terms of the other populations. Maybe, I am just totally confused. I do want to grasp what you are saying. So, how does Noah and repopulating the earth fit into this? Do you have any speaking engagements in Connecticut or lectures? This is all so very interesting. Do you think that some people are upset also that you assert Abraham was of African origin and possiblly dark skinned? Some may not be able to wrap their minds around such and such may cause cognitive dissonance. I don't know. Your work is a journey for you and possibley for others. I find it quite intriguing regardless if I agree or not. To be honest, my background in this field is so limited that your blog perplexes me. It is interesting and I am learning. Your blog helps me to view Genesis in a different perspective. I enjoy history. Your blog may answer some questions that have dug at my inner core. I have so many questions. I do hope you lecture in Connecticut soon, I will come.
Adam is presented as historical in the sense that he represents the founder of the R1b lineage to which Abraham belonged. Among these were people with a red skin tone, like the Red Nubians.
The Biblical writers recognized that the people among them with red skin were of an ancestral line of extreme antiquity. Some of these people were rulers in Edom. These are listed in Genesis 36. Esau the Elder and Esau the Younger were among them. Esau is described as being red in Genesis 26.
Adam was formed from the red clay which washed down to the Upper Nile Valley from the Ethiopian highlands. These soils have a cambic B horizon. Chromic cambisols have a strong red brown color. It is evident then that the Upper Nile is the point of origin of the Adam and Eve story.
Jeff A. Benner, an expert on ancient Hebrew, explains:
We are all familiar with the name "Adam" as found in the book of Genesis, but what does it really mean? Let us begin by looking at its roots. This word/name is a child root derived from the parent דם meaning, "blood". By placing the letter א in front of the parent root, the child rootאדם is formed and is related in meaning to דם (blood).
By examining a few other words derived from the child root אדם we can see a common meaning in them all. The Hebrew word אדמה (adamah) is the feminine form of אדם meaning "ground" (see Genesis 2:7). The word/name אדום (Edom) means "red". Each of these words have the common meaning of "red". Dam is the "red" blood, adamah is the "red" ground, edom is the color "red" and adam is the "red" man. There is one other connection between "adam" and "adamah" as seen in Genesis 2:7 which states that "the adam" was formed out of the "adamah".
Adam is also posed as the first created human in St. Paul's meta-historical sense - "Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit." 1 Cor. 15:45
Noah's sons did not repopulate the earth. during the African Humid Period. At one time Noah lived in the region of Lake Chad major water systems connected the Nile and central Africa. The highest concentration of R1b in Africa is in the Lake Chad region, Noah's homeland.
Noah lived approximately 2490-2415 BC. This is the period of the Old Kingdom, a time of great cultural and technological achievement in Egypt. This places Noah and his sons in relatively recent history. They ruled over territories during the time of the 7th, 8th and 9th Dynasties in Egypt.
There is evidence that humans had dispersed almost globally by 100,000 years ago, long before Noah's time. During Noah's flood these populations were not destroyed. Consider the following population estimates by urban center between 2500 and 2200 BC:
Memphis, Egypt - 32,000 inhabitants
Lagash, Iraq - 60,000 inhabitants
Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan - 40,000 inhabitants
Mari, Syria -50,000 inhabitants
Baodun settlements covering an area of about 373 miles show no evidence of destruction by flooding though all six Baodun settlements straddled the Min River in central Sichuan province. The Min is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River.
There is no evidence that any of these peoples were wiped out by a catastrophic global flood and that the earth was repopulated by Noah's descendants. However, there is evidence of Proto-Saharan and Kushite expansions out of Africa just as it is described in Genesis 10.
We do not know how Abraham looked, but as he was a ruler in the territory of Edom, he likely had a reddish skin tone. We know that he ruled over ancient Edom because his two wives maintained settlements in Hebron (Sarah) and Beersheba (Keturah) and these are entirely within the boundaries of ancient Edom. Edom was called "Idumea" by the Greeks, and Idumea means "land of red people."
People are largely ignorant about the great genetic diversity that exists and has always existed in Africa. Skin tones include black, brown, reddish brown, yellowish, olive, blue-black, etc. Hair and eye color and shape also varied greatly.
Keep thinking about this! God is faithful to true seekers.
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