Monday, May 14, 2012

False Assumption #3 of Young Earth Creationists

Alice C. Linsley

This continues the series on "False Assumptions of Young Earth Creationists."

False Assumption 1:  Genesis is history and should be read as a chronological account

False Assumption 2:  The Genesis “begats” list the first people living on Earth

False Assumption 3:  Bishop Ussher's timeline is reliable and can be used to calculate the age of the Earth.

Young Earth Creationists use Archbishop James Ussher’s chronology to date the age of the Earth. Ussher assumed that the "begats" were the first living people on earth. Instead these early rulers of the Afro-Asiatic Dominion lived within the historical period and their reigns correspond to early Egyptian dynasties.

First Intermediate Period
2475-2445 BC: 7th - 8th Dynasties Noah, Shem, Ham, Japheth and Kush

2445–2160 BC: 9th -10th Dynasties Nimrod, Arpachshad, Salah, Eber and Peleg and Joktan

Middle Kingdom
2160-2000 BC: 11th Dynasty Nahor, Terah and Abraham

2000-1788 BC: 12th Dynasty Jacob, Esau, Joseph

The Afro-Asiatic Dominion was essentially Kushitic and a vehicle for the diffusion of Horite religion. Dr Christopher Ehret confirms this in his "History in Africa." He writes, "The linguistic, genetic, and archaeological evidence combine in locating the origins of this family far south in Africa, in Eritrea or Ethiopia, and not at all in Asia. A complex array of lexical evidence confirms that the proto-Afrasian society belonged to the pre-agricultural eras of human history." (p.4)

Beginning with François Lenormant, the Kushite expansion into ancient Sumer/Chaldea has been well-documented. In Sumerian inscriptions the Kushites were called Meluha Kasi.  Nimrod, the son a Kush built a geat empire in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley.  He is known in history as Sar-gon the Great. Sar-gon is a title meaning "High King" or "King of Kings." The Elamite word for king is sunki, a cognate of the Hausa sarki, meaning king or ruler. The Sumerian word for king is sar and the Chadic word for ruler is gon.

Sargon the Great lived from about 2290 to 2215 BC, which is when his son Rimush (Ramesh) by his sister-wife ascended the throne. Alternative dates for Sargon the Great are 2360-2279, but these dates likely refer to his maternal grandfather after whom he was named. It was Sargon the Elder, not Sargon the Great, who conquered Nippur in 2340 B.C. and established his capital in Accad (Agade/Agadez).

Timeline of Rulers in Genesis

B.C. 2490-2415 - Noah lived when the Sahara experienced a wet period (Karl W. Butzer 1966)

B.C. 2438-2363 - Ham, son of Noah by his cousin-wife

B.C. 2417-2342 - Kush, son of Ham and the father of Nimrod and Ramah

B.C. 2290-2215 - Nimrod

B.C. 2238-2163 - Arpacshad, Nimrod's son by Asshur's daughter (of Ar clans)

B.C. 2217-2042 - Salah, likely Arpacshad's son by his sister wife.

B.C. 2196-2121 - Eber, likely Salah's son by his sister wife.

B.C. 2175-2100 - Peleg, son of Eber (Peleg's brother was Joktan the Elder.)

B.C. 2154-2079 - Reu (The name appears in Leah's line. She named her first-born son Reu-ben.)

B.C. 2133-2058 - Serug, likely Reu's firstborn by his sister wife.

B.C. 2112-2037 - Nahor, likely Serug's firstborn by his sister wife.

B.C. 2091-2016 - Terah, likely Nahor's firstborn by his sister wife.

B.C. 2039-1964 - Abraham, Terah's son by his cousin wife.

B.C. 1987-1912 - Joktan, Abraham's firstborn son by his cousin wife, Keturah.

Lists are Regnal, Not Generational

Ussher didn’t recognize that the Genesis genealogies are regnal, not generational. The begats cannot be used to count generations because they are king lists and some kings ruled simultaneously.  Others ruled for short periods, and still others ruled for longer than a generation (40 years). Further, some of the king lists are telescopic.  These do not list every ruler.

Only Ascending Sons are Listed

Ussher was unaware of the marriage and ascendency structure of the Horite rulers whereby each ruler had two wives and two firstborn sons. Ussher's timeline is flawed because he failed to take this into consideration.

The marriage and ascendancy structure was clearly well established among these powerful rulers, indicating that they had been in power long before Noah's time. The oldest known site of Horite religion at Nehken dates to about 4000 B.C. and reflects a high level of technological and cultural achievement.

Menes is credited with first uniting the Upper and Lower Nile peoples into one Kingdom. He wore the double crown to show that he was sovereign over both regions. The serekh surrounding his name is surmounted by the falcon, the totem of Horus. Horus was called “son of God” at Nekhen.

At the Horus temple of Nekhen, votive instruments were ten times larger than the mace heads and bowls found elsewhere, suggesting that this was a very prestigious shrine. Horite priests placed invocations to the Creator at the summit of the fortress as the sun rose. Likely, this is the origin of the sun blessings in Hinduism (the Agnihotra morning ritual) and in Judaism (the Birka Hachama, or “Sun Blessing” ritual performed every 28 years).

The Pattern of Two Wives and Two Sons

Horite rulers maintained two wives in separate households on a north-south axis. The ruler's first wife was a half-sister (as was Sarah to Abraham) and the second wife was a patrilineal cousin or niece (as was Keturah to Abraham). The firstborn son of the half-sister wife ascended to the throne of his biological father. So Isaac ascended to the throne of Abraham. The firstborn son of the patrilineal cousin or niece bride ascended to the throne of his maternal grandfather, after whom he was named. So Abraham's son Joktan ascended to the throne of Joktan's the elder, his maternal grandfather.

The maternal grandfather would have had a sister wife and her firstborn son ruled, but not on the throne to which the cousin bride's firstborn son ascended. There was a hierarchy of chiefs, vassals and kings. Chiefs were placed over the separate settlements and the king would have maintained a residence with a shrine or temple at the sacred center between the two wives' settlements.

All other sons were given gifts of camels, jewelry, flocks, herds and servants and sent away to conquer settlements and build territories for themselves. The importance of these "sent-away sons" as a driving factor in Kushite expansion should not be overlooked.

This pattern is evident in the case of the Kushite kingdom-builder Nimrod. Nimrod, one of Abraham's ancestors, is an example. He was ethnically Kushite but was probably sent away from his older brother Ramah whose territory was in northern Arabia. This explains why he regarded his mother as "lowly." She would have been a woman of less wealth and status than the wife of Ramah, Kush's the firstborn son. After numerous conquests, Nimrod’s territory was far greater than his brother’s. It extended the length of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley and within this territory there were three principal cities: Babel, Erech and Accad in the plain of Shinar (Gen. 10:10). The script used to communicate across Nimrod’s empire was Akkadian. It has close affinity to the languages of the Nile Valley.

Titles, not Proper Names

Ussher did not take into consideration is that Kushite rulers, like Egyptian rulers, did not name their biological fathers in their king lists. This explains why many of the names are titles of royal persons ratehr than proper names.  Enoch means "one to follow" or "one who replaces." It is a royal title.

The title Terah (Tera) means "priest."  Abraham's father was Terah and he was associated with the royal Ainu of the Upper Nile. Tera-neter means "one devoted to God."  The title is associated with Het-u temples. The Het are listed in Genesis 10 as descendants of Noah's grandsons Sidon and Het and were inhabitants of Canaan.  (The dispersion of the Nilotic Ainu has been well documented at this blog.)

The Kushites believed that the ruler-priest was the son of Re or Ammon whose emblem was the sun. The Pharaoh was called "son of Re" which is why Egyptian texts never mention the king's earthly father. Kingship was rather a manifestation of the solar deity's overshadowing of noble women. Sargon the Great claimed not to know his father. He based his authority to rule on the suggestion that he was conceived according to the Horite myth of miraculous virgin conceptionThe proof of the ruler's diety was his resurrection from the dead.  Sargon stayed dead, as did all the rulers of Egypt and Mespotamia.  However, Jesus Christ, a descendant of their royal lines, did indeed rise from the dead and his rising was verified by many eye witnesses

Related reading:  Who Were the Kushites?; Righteous Rulers and the Resurrection; Abraham's Kushite Ancestors; Kushite Kings and the Kingdom of God


dcsimm said...

I'm reading your blog and am fascinated by what I'm learning about biblical history! Why haven't I heard this before? I especially love the post with the comparison of the Hebrew alphabet to the Japanese alphabet

Alice C. Linsley said...

Glad you are finding the reading helpful. You haven't heard much of this because this is original research which I have been doing over 30+ years.