Monday, November 19, 2012

The Kushite-Kushan Connection


Alice C. Linsley


I have been exploring the connection between the ancient Kushites and the Kushan (Kuşāņa) of Bactria and China. The earliest Kushan dynasty about which we have information dates to between 5 B.C. and 50 A.D. (For lists of the Kushan rulers go here.) The Kushan split into northern and southern empires around 330 A.D.

The Kushites and the Kushan were great pyramid builders, and both mummified their rulers. There are definite similarities in clothing, facial appearance, skin tone, and religious practices among the Kushan-Yuetzhi and the Nilotic or Kushite Ainu. The gold medallion belts found at Kushan graves are similar to the roundel belts depicted on statues of ruler-priests found within the temple complex at Hatra between the Tigris and Euphrates. The rulers of Hatra controlled commerce that moved through their territory along the two main caravan routes that connected Mesopotamia with Syria and Asia Minor. The principle deity was Shamash whose emblem was the Sun. Shamash means "throne of the Sun" in Arabic. This is the same deity as Ra who overshadowed Hathor-Meri. She became pregnant and gave birth to Horus.

The Ainu appear to have intermarried with the Biblical Edomites whose rulers were devotees of Horus. The Edomites are associated with the color red (edom means red). Probably some had red hair and a reddish skin tone. This is the Biblical description of Isaac's son Esau who was born red and hairy. Esau the Younger married a Horite woman of Edom, a descendant of Seir the Horite (Gen. 36).


Kushite Expansion Out of Africa

There is DNA evidence to confirm the Kushite migration out of Africa. The Kushan-Yuezhi provide evidence of the perhaps the most recent movement of the Kushites out of Africa. Some moved into central Asia and China and others moved into Japan. They are also called Gurjar. Gurjar is a reference to their mercantilism and metal work. In Akkadian gurguri means metalworkers or copper smiths. In Oromo gurguru means to sell (gurgurtaa = sale, gurguraa = seller). In Somali gur- refers to collecting something and gurgure means one who collects and keeps collecting. The Gurgure clan of the Dir refers to traders who collect wares and resale them. Among the Dir guri means stick, rod or firearm. Bulghar means "territory of the Ghar."

The Kushan-Yuezhi called themselves Visha or the Vijaya. This is usually rendered "Tribes" although the word refers to their two ruling royal houses, as in vijana, the splitting of wisdom. The honorific title Pharaoh originates in the term pr-aa, which means "great house." In Vedic tradition, pra-jna means "wisdom of the great house." The words have multiple, related meanings (polysemic). In Vedic tradition the a-laya-vijña-na is the seed of the receptacle-world, but literally it means the receptacle of the seed, as in va-gina, symbolized originally by the pictograph V. Karmic seeds - bija - are laid down in Alaya-vi-jña-na to produce karmic fruition. Alaya (aalaya) refers to a house, dwelling, or a receptacle. Bi appears to be a variant of Vi.

vi or bi - separation, division into 2
jna - wisdom / to know
pra- intensifier

The Kushite rulers maintained 2 ruling lines and these lines intermarried. We find this pattern in Genesis. The lines of Kain and Seth intermarried. The lines of Ham and Shem intermarried, as did the lines of Abraham and Nahor. This is a distinctive feature of the marriage pattern of the Nilotic Ainu. This marriage pattern preserved the Ainu genetic type and the range of hair, eye and skin coloring.

There is a mistaken idea that all the peoples who moved out of Africa were black. However, among Abraham's Nilotic ancestors there was a range of skin color and appearance. To this day, Africa has the greatest genetic diversity of any continent.

The facial structure of the Kushan and Ainu is also similar, as is seen in the following images.  Common features include high cheekbones, an aquiline long nose, full lips and a beard and moustache. The beard is often ginger colored or dark brown with reddish highlights.

Kushan man from Gandhara

Notice the headwear with the frontal piece. 
This resembles that worn by the Ainu 
of Japan and North America.




Bearded Kushan-Yuezhi man with frontal piece



MicMac elder of Eastern Canada.
The MicMac are Ainu who came to North America from Finland.
The Ainu originated in the Nile Valley.


Ainu elder of Northern Japan


Ancient Chinese sources describe the existence of "white people with long hair" called the Bai people in the Shan Hai Jing. Bai is likely a reference to Bactria and may also be related to the ancient Egyptian word Ba.


Linguistic Research Needed

The range of territory ruled by the Kushites makes it a challenge to discover cognates. Consider, for example, the words Kanishka and Jianisejia. These would not be readily recognized as cognates. Likewise, few historians recognize that a variant of Kushan-Yuezhi is Gueis-Huang. Clearly there is a need for further study to uncover the linguistic dispersion of the Kushites. 

Linguistic similarities have been noted. The Ainu and Han scripts, for example, are variations of an older Kushite script. Kushan rulers spoke a Saka language. The Khotanese Saka language is found among the Tarim Mummies. János Harmatta pointed out that this language is very similar to the Bactrian language as outlined in his analysis of the Dasht-e-Nawur inscriptions.

Sa-ka and Ainu are both archaic words for Human Being. The Ka was believed to be the essence of the person received from the mother. This is also the root of the honorific title Kain, Qayan or Khan, meaning king. This resembles the Old Nubian ko meaning master and the Meriotic honorific qo, meaning noble or ruler. Variants include Xan, Han, Ke-Han, and the Mongolian Qaan.  Eve gave birth to Kain/Cain and said "ka-niti" which is related to the ancient Egyptian ka-ntr, meaning "spirit or essence of a king." The ancient Nilotes believed that the Ka was received from the mother and the Ba from the father.

Linguist Penelope Aubin notes, "In language history, it is not uncommon for the outermost reaches of a language's range to preserve archaic features long after the original language (spoken and written) has undergone considerable change. Icelandic's relation to Old Norse and Old Irish's relation to early Celtic are examples." This appears to be the case with the words priest and water. In ancient Egyptian tera-ntr refers to a ruler-priest and among the Ainu tera means priest. The Ainu word for water is aka, which corresponds to asta, the Old Nubian word for water.

Aubin notes a linguistic connection between Aramaic and the script used by the Kushana. She writes, "Kharosthi, closely related to Brahmi, another of the rare alphasyllabaries mentioned earlier, was a script used in western India beginning around 500 B.C.E. under the Maurya emperor Asoka; it continued under the Kushana dynasty until the 4th century C.E. It appears on both Persian sigloi and on Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian and Indo-Parthian coinage. This script may have been a hybrid of Aramaic, which was introduced by the Persian Achaemenid rulers who conquered Northwest India, and the indigenous Brahmi script, itself possibly inspired by Aramaic. It is sometimes referred to as Indo-Aramaic."

There is also a correspondence between place names of sacred sites in Kushan territories and Kushite territories. Karnak, Orissa, On (the root of Onogar) and Borno are examples. The Kushan capital was Hucao at the lower Wakhsh (Oxus) and the Darya-i Pandj (Ochus) river valley towards Aï Khanum. Aï Khanum reflects the Afro-Asiatic words Khan or Kain and Ai. Ai is the name of an ancient shrine in Palestine. Genesis 12: 8 says that Abraham proceeded “to the mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, with Bethel on the west and Ai on the east; and there he built an altar to the Lord and called upon the name of the Lord."

Here is a provocative linguistic connection between the Ainu of northwest China and the Nilotic Ainu who moved out of Africa. The Ainu of northwest China live in the region of Tian. Tian is also the oldest known name for the Supreme Creator in China. Ti-an means the Most High God of the Ainu. The Ainu of China practice circumcision and animal sacrifice. Their stories of creation and explanations of corruption in Paradise have parallels to the Genesis accounts.



Pyramids and Mummies

Pyramids in Xian China in the Tarum Valley
There are 125 and 5 are three times higher than the
 pyramid of Khufu at Giza.

The oldest Tarum Mummies found in China date from 1900 B.C. The so-called "Ur-David" mummy (shown below) was tall and had red hair. This mummy, also called Cherchen Man or Chärchän Man, dates to about 1000 B.C.




The Ainu of China are described as a "caste of circumcisers." They number approximately 6,500 people. Most live scattered over northwest China in the counties of Hetian, Luopu, Moyu, Shache, Yingjisha, and Shulekuche, near the ancient oasis city of Kashgar. They keep sheep and goats.

The Ainu of China experience the same social discrimination and abuse as the Inadan of Niger. The majority of Uygur despise the Ainu and call them Abdal, which means "beggar." Likewise, the dominant Taureg refer to the tent-dwelling Inadan as thieves and beggars. The Inadan keep herds and are responsible for metal work, circumcision, and music at special events. Their chiefs maintain two wives in separate households on a north-south axis, as did Abraham and his forefathers. Inadan men and boys are the only persons permitted to work with fire and metals. The Inadan claim to be kin to King David (Aug. 1979, National Geographic, p. 389).

4 comments:

Anonymous said...

On the surface, the similarities seem impressive, but I know of no genetic support for Ainu-African or Aynu(China)-Ainu connections.

Alice Linsley said...

Cavalli-Sforza has placed the Ainu at the center of his genetic distance chart. The Nilotic Ainu are in MT-DNA Haplogroup X which had wide dispersion.

Anonymous said...

There is no genetic evidence at all to suggest Ainu are related to Kushitic peoples. The Ainu are East Asian and are more closely related to various other East Asian indigenous peoples (e.g. people from Kamchatka and even Malaysia) than anything else.

Writing a theory is one thing proving it is another. The only evidence anywhere of this is your own writings. If you can give clear and obtainable evidence then please do so but so far your theories look like you are clutching at straws to prove something that is not reality.

Alice Linsley said...

Thank you for your input. I was hoping for something more in the way of a clear refutation of my hypothesis. Since you have not provided that, I will continue to explore the possible connections.