Monday, July 24, 2017

The Historicity of Noah's Flood

Alice C. Linsley

The historicity of the flood in Genesis is highly probably once we determine when and where Noah lived, using the data of Scripture. One of Noah's grandsons is called "Kush" (Gen. 10) which is also a place name. This is a clue as to where Noah lived.

Kush is associate with the Nile at a time when the water systems of Central Africa were larger. There was a seaway through the Sahara, and the Benue Trough connected to Lake Chad and to rivers and lakes of the east which in turn connected to the Nile.

Analysis of the kinship pattern of the rulers listed in Genesis chapters 4, 5, 10, 11, 25 and 36 reveals that these rulers have a common genetic ancestry. This is because their ruling lines intermarried. In the diagram below, the intermarry of the lines of Ham and Shem is evident in the case of an unnamed daughter of Asshur. Consistent with the cousin bride's naming prerogative, she named her first born son Asshur, after her father.

Genesis 10:8 tells us that Nimrod was a Kushite kingdom builder. Abraham is one of his descendants. This is a clue that Noah was not Mesopotamian. His homeland was in Africa and was associated with the kingdom of his grandson Kush.

This identical pattern of intermarry (endogamy) is evident between the lines of Cain and Seth. In the diagram below, note that Lamech, a descendant of Cain, had two wives. By his wife Zillah, he had a daughter named Naamah. Naamah married her patrilineal cousin Methuselah. Methuselah is a descendant of Seth. Naamah named her first born son Lamech, after her father. Lamech the Younger is the great grandfather of Noah.

We may logically wonder if Noah might have lived in the Nile Valley (Kush) or perhaps in the region of Lake Chad which connected to the Nile in the period of the African Aqualithic.

The region of Lake Chad was called Bor-No, meaning "Land of Noah." Even today the natives of that region consider it to be Noah's homeland. This is the only place on earth that is claimed by the native population to be Noah's homeland.

The Lake Chad Basin is relatively flat and prone to monsoonal flooding. It is ringed by mountains from which water drained into the Basin. The Chad River Basin is shown in this map outlined in red.

At the time Noah lived, the Sahara was much wetter. There was an extensive system of interconnected lakes and rivers. The western Nile watershed extended well into the Sudan. Hydrological studies indicate many periods of flooding from the Nile to the Atlantic coast of Nigeria. Noah lived in the region of Lake Chad. The gray shaded areas show the ancient water ways in the African Sheer Zone.

There was an abundance of reeds. According to Genesis 6:14, Noah's ark was constructed of גפר (gofer/gopher), which is the word used to describe the basket in which Moses floated on the Nile. In other words, the ark was constructed of reeds. The hollow reeds were extremely buoyant. Such vessels are still constructed by the marsh Arabs of Iraq and East Africans.

There is a great deal of evidence that boats were once prevalent in the Sahara. The black mahogany Dufuna dugout (shown below) was found in the Sudan buried 16 feet under clays and sands whose alternating sequence showed evidence of deposition in standing and flowing water. The dugout is 8000 years old. By comparison, Egypt's oldest boat is only about 5000 years old. Peter Breunig (University of Frankfurt, Germany) has written this description of the Dufuna boat: “The bow and stern are both carefully worked to points, giving the boat a notably more elegant form”, compared to “the dugout made of conifer wood from Pesse in the Netherlands, whose blunt ends and thick sides seem crude”. Judging by stylistic sophistication, Breunig reasons that, “It is highly probable that the Dufuna boat does not represent the beginning of a tradition, but had already undergone a long development, and that the origins of water transport in Africa lie even further back in time.”

Boats appear on prehistoric rock paintings in the Sahara. Many show people transporting long horn cows by boat. The Proto-Saharan were cattle-herding. Here are examples of the sickle, incurved sickle, square, incurved square, and flared boat types found on the prehistoric rock art of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt.

The historicity of Noah’s concern for animals is supported by the discovery that Proto-Saharan rulers kept royal menageries of exotic animals. The oldest known zoological collection was found during the 2009 excavations at the shrine city of Nekhen on the Nile. The royal menagerie dates to about 3500 BC and included hippos, elephants, baboons and wildcats. Noah would have known about the shrine city of Nekhen. It was one of the earliest worship centers for the Horite Hebrew. This painting was found on the wall of a tomb in Nehken.

At Nekhen archaeologists discovered a mummified ruler with red hair and a red beard. Although most of the hair found in the graves at Nekhen was of a dark brown color, natural red hair was discovered in association with the male in Burial no. 79. (Nekhen News, page 8)

Noah and his descendants appear to be in Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b. The R1 rulers were the "mighty men of old" who dispersed into southern Europe, the Tarim Valley of China, and eventually into the British Isles. About 70% of native British men are in Haplogroup R1b. The dark red spot in Central Africa is Noah's homeland near Lake Chad.

Similar mummified remains have been found in pyramids in the Tarum Valley of China. The oldest date to about 1900 BC. Below is a photo of one of the Tarum royal mummies. Note the red hair and solar image on the ruler's cheek. The solar mark indicates that he was divinely appointed. Divine appointment among Abraham's ancestors was indicated by being overshadowed by the Sun. This explains why the Angel Gabriel told Mary that she would be "overshadowed" and the one she brought forth is the Son of God. The "Ur-David" mummy (shown below) was tall and had red hair. This mummy, also called Cherchen Man or Chärchän Man, dates to about 1000 B.C.

The Edomite rulers listed in Genesis 36 are identified with the red rulers Esau and David. Abraham's territory was entirely in the ancient land of Edom, called "Idumea" by the Greeks. Idumea means "land of red people."


Father-Son Light said...

I am always amazed at your work.
How I wish just a few Nigerians and Sub-Saharan people will wake up to study these things.

Anonymous said...


Alice C. Linsley said...

Anonymous wants to know "How did Noah know how to transport animals by shipping?"

Transporting cattle by boats was common among the Proto-Saharans. See this:

Anonymous said...

Thanks Alice.Not sure that the link you posted,shows how they might have achieved transporting animals by sea,for many months.Some say perhaps it might have been more than 300 days.This would seem near impossible even by today's standard.Some animal need fresh meat to remain healthy?

Alice C. Linsley said...

Some scholars believe the 40 days and 40 nights are a literary device. The same phrase is found in the story of Jesus in the wilderness fasting for 40 days, and the Israelites in the wilderness for 40 years.

Anonymous said...

Thanks Alice.I can say that i always enjoy reading along through your research.Really appreciate the amount of work you put into it

Susan Preston said...

Alice, your list of Abraham's ancestors has him coming from the line of Ham. Unless I am reading it wrongly, the Bible has him descended from Shem.
Am I reading your chart correctly?

Alice C. Linsley said...

Abraham's ancestors were a ruler-priest caste. They practiced endogamy. Abraham is descendant of both Shem and Ham, as their lines intermarried.

See this:

Alice C. Linsley said...

Further evidence that the lines of Ham and Shem intermarried is found with the names Lud and Ludim (Ludites). In Genesis 10, Lud is named as a son of Shem and in Genesis 10:13, the Ludim are said to be of Ham.