|Nok figurine reveals Kushite influence|
Proto-Saharan and Kushite rulers controlled a vast Afro-Asiatic Dominion from Africa to the Indus River Valley. Nimrod was a Kushite ruler.
|Afro-Asiatic genetic landscape|
In Objections to the Fundamentalist Reading of Genesis 1-5, the case was made for understanding Cain as the royal descendant of Adam and Eve rather than Eve's offspring. The Biblical writer is claiming an historical connection between Cain and Adam, the first created Father. Cain is designated as one who has dominion, like Adam. Cain's ruler status is derived from the supreme Ruler of the universe in whose image he was born. In the context of Cain's culture this status pertained to rulers only who were expected to reflect the glory of the Creator. (See "Image of God or Imaging God?")
Among Abraham's Proto-Saharan ancestors, status and occupation were received from the father. As the "son" of Adam, Cain hold the status and occupation of a king ruling over a territory. His territory appears to have extended from Niger to the Jos Plateau of Nigeria on a north-south axis. Among the Proto-Saharan rulers bloodline was traced through the mother (as even today among Jews). In claiming that Cain was the offspring of Eve, his bloodline is traced back to the first peoples of Eden.
If Adam is the first to rule on earth, then Cain is the second ruler. That the Bible grants Cain ruler status is evident from a study of what Cain symbolizes in Scripture. When Jude warns early followers of Jesus not to abandon Christ because of their sufferings, he uses three men as examples: Cain the ruler, Balaam the prophet, and Korah the priest. These were the three most sacred offices among Abraham’s people and they were sometimes filled by people corrupted by the world.
Genesis 1-5 is about rulers. Genesis 4 lists the kings descended from Cain by his cousin wife, the daughter of Enoch/Nok. Genesis 5 lists the kings descended from Seth by his cousin wife, another daughter of enoch/Nok. These two ruler lines intermarried (matrimonial moeity) and from Enoch the Elder (shown here) comes Noah, the son of Enoch the Younger about whom it is written that God took him" (Gen. 5:22-24).
To understand Genesis 1-6 properly we must hold in mind that these chapters concern rulers. We are not being told about the first people on earth or even about all the people on earth. We are being told about the oldest known line of rulers and the line from which all the great Biblical rulers came, including Terah, Abraham, Nahor, Moses, David and Jesus Christ.
Having this point clear, we may proceed to consideration of Genesis 5-12. Here is the fundamentalist reading of Genesis 6-12:
Noah and his family were the sole survivors of a worldwide flood.
Noah's ark landed on a mountain of Ararat in Armenia.
From there, the descendants of Noah re-populated the Earth.
Noah's descendants were arrogant and built a tower (ziggurat) to try to reach the Heavens.
As an act of divine judgment, God "confused" their languages and this is the origin of all the different languages of the world.
Genesis 10 is a "Table of the Nations" that emerged after the Tower of Babel.
From all the people on earth, God chose Abraham to become the founder of the Jewish people.
The Historical Noah
The historical Noah emerges more clearly when we place him in his proper context: that of a Proto-Saharan ruler who lived approximately 2490-2415 BC, when the Sahara experienced a wet period (Karl W. Butzer 1966). This is the period of the Old Kingdom, a time of great cultural and technological achievement in Egypt. The population of Egypt under the first dynasties was between 1 and 2 million inhabitants. Edward S. Ellis put the New Kingdom population at 5 million. The author of the Royal Ontario Museum website gives an estimate of between 1.5 and 5 million Egyptians during the Pyramid Age.
Noah was a descendant of the Proto-Saharan rulers named in the Genesis 4 and 5. He was a great king. The rulers named in Genesis controlled the major water systems of Lake Chad, the Nile, and the Tigris and Euphrates. The interconnected waterways were their roads. In other words, Noah would have been familiar with boats and likely had a fleet.
Proto-Saharan rulers kept menageries with a male and female specimen for breeding purposes. These animals were greatly prized as they were brought from great distances and and were a source of amusement to the royal court. Likely the animals taken by Noah onto the ark were animals from his personal zoo.
These ancient rulers imposed taxes on cargo that moved through their territories. They used the rivers to expand their kingdoms and to spread their Afro-Asiatic worldview. Nimrod is an example. His father was Kush, a ruler who controlled a vast region of the Upper Nile. According to Genesis 10:8-12, Nimrod left the Nile region and built his kingdom along the Tigris in Mesopotamia.
About 4000 years before Noah people were using dugouts to navigate the rivers of the Sahara. This is attested by the discovery of an 8000 year old black mohagany dugout in Dufuna in the Upper Yobe valley along the Komadugu Guna River in Northern Nigeria. This region was much wetter at the time that Noah and his sons ruled.
Noah likely lived in the region of Bor-Nu (Land of Noah) near Lake Chad. This is the only place on Earth that claims to be Noah's homeland. Satellite photographs reveal that Lake Mega-Chad was once a huge body of water, five times the surface area of Lake Superior and with a depth ranging from 200 to 600 feet. This part of Africa was much wetter than it is today due to climate cycles and the African rifts that created great watersheds or troughs.
Noah was the grandfather of Kush, so we should not be surprised to find him in Africa. During Noah's time, the water systems of Lake Chad, the Benue Trough and the Nile were connected and Noah controlled the waterways of the Lake Chad Basin.
Noah's flood was massive, but not worldwide. Consider the following population estimates by urban center between 2400 and 2200 BC, the time when Noah's flood would have occurred:
Memphis, Egypt - 32,000 inhabitants
Lagash, Iraq - 60,000 inhabitants
Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan - 40,000 inhabitants
Mari, Syria -50,000 inhabitants
The Search for Noah's Ark
Noah's ark has never been found. There are several reasons. People are looking in the region of Noah's homeland. Teh evidence suggests that Noah's ark came to rest on Mount Meni (Har Meni, not Armenia) in northeast Tanzania. This mountain is called Mount Meru.
|Mount Meru in October|
The ark was made mostly of reeds (gopher) over a wood frame. Reeds degrade quickly so no remnant of Noah's ark would be found after more than 4000 years. A reed ark would quickly disintegrate in the humidity of 2 seasonal wet periods on Mount Meru; one from March to May and another from October to November.
The Sons and Descendants of Noah
The sons of Noah continued the matrimonial moeity. The lines of Ham and Shem intermarried. Their descendants were great rulers also. One of the greatest was Nimrod, a Kushite kingdom builder, whose territory in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley was extensive. Abraham is a descendant of these Kushite rulers. Their ruler-priests were called ha-biru, which is the word "Hebrew" in English. The ha-biru (or ha-piru) were temple and shrine attendants. They represent the oldest known order of priests and Jesus Christ is a descendant of their ruler-priest lines.
Related reading: The Tower of Babel; The Migration of Abraham's Ancestors; Answers to Questions About Noah's Flood; Sub-Saharan DNA of Modern Jews