Friday, March 28, 2014

Edo, Edom and Idumea

Idumea means "land of red people"

Note that both Hebron (where Sarah lived) and Beersheba (where Keturah lived) are in Idumea. Abraham's territory extended between the settlements of his two wives and was entirely in the region the Greeks called Idumea.

The Great Edo Empire of Benin

"Edo monarchs demonstrate strong affinity with ancient Egyptian Gods and Pharaohs, with which they share identical authority, grandeur and a great deal of reverence from their subjects. Like the Pharaohs, Idu (Edo) monarchs are God-kings. Because they are God-kings and God-sons, they are considered divine and worshipped by their subjects, who speak to them always with great reverence, at a distance, and on bended knees. Great ceremonies surround every action of the Edo king. The kings of Benin (Bini) also adopt grand Osirian titles of the ‘Open Eye,’ signifying omniscience and omnipotence. Edo monarchs, when they transit to the beyond, are, like the Egyptian Pharaohs, set up in state, in a linked series of underground chambers, surrounded with their paraphernalia of power, and all of the items they would require for their comfortable sojourn in the ethereal world" (From here.)

Edo, Edomite, Idoma and Idumea are related words. The Greeks called the inhabitants of this region "Idumeans" (people with a reddish skin tone, like the Igbo of Benin). The ancient name of Edo is Idu. Idu was the progenitor of the Edo or Idoma.  Hence the expression: “Iduh the father of Idoma.” The royal lines of the Edo have been orally transmitted. Iduh begot six sons: Ananawoogeno who begot the children of Igwumale; Olinaogwu who begot the people of Ugboju; Idum who begot the people of Adoka; Agabi who begot the people of Otukpo; Eje who begot the people of Oglewu; Ebeibi who begot the people of Umogidi in Adoka, and Ode who begot the people of Yala.

A Nabataean bronze object has been found in Wādī Mūsā, near Petra. The inscription mentions a priest and his son and is dedicated to Obodas the god in Gaia. Gaia was in the mountains to the east of Petra. The text is dated to the reign of the last Nabataean king, Rabbel II (70–106 AD). Obodas, the first ruler of Petra in Edom, took his title from the Edo name for ruler which is Oba. It appears that the Edo conception of the deified ruler was found among the Edomites of Petra. This title was used also among the Ainu and in the history of Japan "obitos" refers to regional rulers.

The prophet Obadiah was from Edom, according to the Talmud, and said to have been a friend of the Horite ruler Job. Genesis 36 lists the Horite ruling family of Edom. Among them were two Horite rulers named Esau, as shown in the diagram below.

Related reading: Solving the Ainu MysteryPetra Reflects Horite Beliefs; The Edomites and the Color Red; Why Does Genesis Speak of Gods?


Anonymous said...

This blog rocks!!!!!!!!

Anonymous said...

Thank you for this information. I do note the linguistic similarities with the historical/Biblical Idumea and the West African Edo. I note the similarities between Edo monarchs and Egyptian monarchs. There appears to be some relationship of what we understand of Bible names, places, things and history with that of West African names, places, things and history. I appreciate your bringing attention to the kinship patterns we see in the Bible and the cultural link to that of Africans. I would term it Biblical Anthropology.

I understand what this means to some Africans because it appeals to their obsessive inclination to link themselves to the Bible as a way to validate their relevance to world history and to justify their existance since they have no written history of their own, and what they have been made to think of themselves and their history as "savage," "heathen" and "pagan". Such is the affect of missionary induced colonization of the African mind with the Bible.

Though I cannot in absolute terms exclude it, I tend to not use the Bible as a way to validate African history. We Africans have been encouraged to think we need to appeal to the master piece of western epistemology to define how we fit in it. We have totally lost our African mind for an enslaved or colonized one that I call the zapped African mind.

Having a zapped african mind myself, I can appreciated how your research opens up how much the bible reflects many aspects of African peoplehood, history, culture and tradition. For some it begets the notion of our origins being from the biblical names, peoples, places, things and history and for others the bible being evidence of our pre biblical origins that the Jewish narrative in spite of itself put or retained in the hebraic text. ~Sidney Davis

Alice C. Linsley said...

Thanks, Sidney, for that thoughtful comment. I fully appreciate the difficult task you describe. Native Americans struggle with this also.

My efforts are to recover antecedents of peoples, religious practices and beliefs using the tools of cultural anthropology. Digging into antecedents is like finding a crossroads with many divergent paths, but all the paths lead back to Africa.

Anonymous said...

they are considered divine and worshipped by their subjects

Would you consider this a perversion of the Horite religion? Or did people worship other Horite leaders, like Abraham?

Alice C. Linsley said...

They are not worshiped. They are venerated as deified rulers, sometimes called "sons" of God. African traditional religions retain elements of the ancient role of rulers as mediators between their people and the Creator. The wise ruler was to search out the things concealed. Proverbs 25:2 - "It is the glory of God to conceal a thing: but the honor of kings is to search out a matter."

The concept of deified sons points to the Divine Son who rules a kingdom that will not end. Deified rulers were ceremonially buried in the hope that one would rise from the dead and lead his people to immortality. Psalm 68:18 - "You ascended on high, leading a host of captives in your train and receiving gifts..." St. Paul refers to this, using the language of a priestly procession through the empty tomb to eternity (Eph. 4:8).

See this:

DManA said...

I hope I'm not putting words into your mouth but you literally said they were worshiped. Then you said they were "deified".

past tense: deified; past participle: deified

worship, regard, or treat (someone or something) as a god.

Alice C. Linsley said...

The idea of deification is found throughout the Bible. The 72 righteous ones who serve God at his throne are an example.

We find this idea in "The Watchers" from about 300 BC: "And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgment upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly: And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him." (1 Enoch 60:8).

This is referenced in the New Testament in Jude: "And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these [men], saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, to execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him." (Jude 1:14-15)

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the life of monks is characterized by deification or theosis. The idea is not at all foreign to Christianity.

Eyes wide open said...

I read somewhere that King Herod was an Edomite. Is this true?

Alice C. Linsley said...

Eyes wide open,

Herod was of Edomite ancestry and called himself "King of the Jews". His wise men knew that the true King would be born in Bethlehem, a Horite Hebrew settlement. I Chronicles 4:4 lists Hur (Hor) as the "father of Bethlehem".

After David became king, he brought the Ark of the Covenant "from the house of Abinadab, that was in Gibeah” (Saul's hometown) to Jerusalem (II Sam. 6:1-12). However, for three months the ark rested in David’s hometown of Bethlehem in the house of Obed-Edom.